An Introduction to China
Capital - Beijing
Continent - Asia
President - Xi Jinping
Languages - Mandarin, although several different dialects exist in China
Currency - The Renminbi (¥)
In the MUN
Being a permanent member of the Security Council both here on TSR and in real life, China's position in the MUN holds much power and therefore, means you need to be elected for this position. It also holds the world's largest active standing army and has the world's second largest military budget behind the US. China's economic growth is also the highest amongst the BRIC nations, and having a population of over 1 billion, it's demographics are also quite unique and would make great fun to represent in the MUN.
It could be argued that China's biggest ally is the United States. Both cannot afford (politically, militarily and economically) to break ties and exist in what might be seen as an uncomfortable pair. This however, could be up for debate.
China's allies are typically seen as Russia, Iran, Pakistan, Venezuela, Cuba, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe and to an extent, Serbia. Due to China's recent stance in Africa, it is also rapidly gaining support amongst African countries.
Again, China's biggest enemy could be seen as the United States. The Chinese government worries about the US government's latest "pivot" to Asia, which is seen as a facade for the encirclement and containment of China.
Due to the Chinese policy of non-intervention in international politics, China might not be seen as having any nation it would class as an enemy. Some border disputes exist however, most notably with India with whom China fought a war (which was won by China) over an area of land in the Aksai Chin and South Tibet/NEFA duriing 1962.
Some anti-Japanese sentiment also exists due to the sensitive reminder of World War II, as well as recent disputes over the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. China also has claims in the South China Sea, which clash with the claims of the Phillipines and Vietnam (although the latter is not considered hostile).
China is famously responsible for the discovery of four fundamental inventions (known as the "four great inventions") - The Compass, Gunpowder, Paper and Printing.
China is often considered the longest continuous civilization, with some historians marking 6000 B.C. as the dawn of Chinese civilization. It also has the world’s longest continuously used written language.
China is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, and the U.S.). It has an area of 3,719,275 square miles (slightly smaller than the U.S.) and its borders with other countries total more than 117,445 miles. Approximately 5,000 islands lie off the Chinese coast.
Around one in every five people in the world is Chinese.
China historically has been the world's largest economy up to the 19th century (up until industrialisation occured in the United Kingdom).
China's political structure is formed from a single-party socialist republic, with the Chinese Communist Party being the fundamental political entity in action. Leadership is elected internally within the party in a carefully managed once in a decade transition (Xi Jinping being the newly elected leader of the "fifth generation", taking the role from Hu Jintao, leader of the "fourth generation".
State power within China is exercised through the Communist Party of China, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local counterparts. Under the dual leadership system, each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government, and elect members to the Provincial (or Municipal in the case of independent municipalities) People's Congress. The Provincial People's Congress in turn elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing. The ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels.
China's economy is predominantly known as a Socialist market economy, or state capitalism, with emphasis on the triumph of state-owned enterprises which enjoy a huge advantage in terms of safety in the form of having the backing of the government. Consequently, businesses not under the control of the state may find it hard to compete with their peers, and thus creates a market less open to free competition.
China holds the highest GDP growth rate of the BRIC countries, resulting in its status as the world's second largest economy. It's vast expansion has resulted in rapid inflation of commodity prices to satisfy China's demand for new resources.
Much of China's GDP is export based, with huge trade surpluses with consumer economies such as the United States. Due to the economic downturn however, there is now much focus by the current government to pivot away from relying on the exports of manufactured goods towards services and consuming goods internally within China. Consequently, economic growth in China is likely to slow.
China's major focus on an international scale is its territorial disputes with several countries in the South China Sea and with India. Internally, corruption is usually labelled as the biggest problem that needs to be tackled, and Xi Jinping has also made it a particular focus in his leadership.
Useful news sources
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/ Seen as a window into the Chinese government's views on current affairs, but is known as being more liberal compared to the Communist Party's viewpoint.
http://www.globaltimes.cn/index.html Chinese tabloid with a strong Pro-Government slant. Useful for understanding the opinion of the Chinese government.
http://www.chinanewsagency.com/ - Good news source.