• Revision:The Islamic Conquests

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  • No time 641 Islamic conquest overrun near East and Herealeion dead. Worse crisis than anytime Persian war.
  • Very little evidence – oral history very difficult to rely on
  • Double mill tribal tradition, ulama to create and develop new religion – Islam.
  • Latw 620s – tribes of Ariabia united under Prophet Muhammed – begins raids into Palestine.
  • Conqeust Eastern Provinces begin 633 – rapid as Transjordan, Palestine and Syria surrender.
  • 635 – Damascus fell, 636 Yarmuk battle north of Joran – Muslims win
  • Jerusalem surrendered in 638 – decisive defeat of Egypt in 641, Dara, Edessa and Antiochlost.
  • 645 counter-attack regains Alexandria, but 646 Egypt in Roman hands.
  • 640s press on and attack Taurus mountains, Anatolian plateau, Hakkari mountains and through Azerbaidjan into Armenia. 653-4 citizens of Constantinople see Muslim army on Bosphorus.
  • By 650 Muslims have ended Sasanian state of Persia. Old political order come to a rapid and unexpected end.
  • Why? Arabs were excellent warriors, united Allies, like confederate Roman allies, much more of a threat.
  • Not eternal enemy – groups of Arabs all around the enemy and used by Romans as confederates
  • Arabs confederates usually attacked each other as they tried to gain grace and as next Confederate. After 19 yr absence no surprise that inter Arab battle for membership confederacy. Everyone suspecting victors integrated into Roman world.
  • Romans gone for a long time in these places – generations not know Roman rule – Muslim Aabsmust have seen desirable continuation of state affairs.
  • Muslims in 630 under one leader and not following ideology of Constantinople – messianic anto Roman fervour as well.
  • Fight back?? Drained after previous wars, in 629 Eastern provinces no recovered. As history of area shows once major forts gone 0 decisive battle at Yamuk forcing Roman regroup at Anatolia – difficult situation to resolve. Without eastern provinces and war weary empire lacked the resources and the allies for such an endeavour.


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