Generally no as above I gather, although I believe a) many courses interview applicants at two colleges (and you may be given an offer by either) and b) I think there is some facility where other colleges might consider a student who was a strong applicant but edged out by competition, albeit I believe this is much less formalised than the Cambridge pooling system. So there is a possibility you may be made an offer by another college (not of your choosing) anyway.
But you can't substitute the college choice on UCAS for another one after applying I believe. But equally realistically, is the college you applied to really such a deal breaker that you would potentially turn down an offer at Oxford because you were at the one college? To a point the colleges are, I gather, glorified halls of residence with some additional functions, and tend to be more similar than different on the whole.