vyu
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Hey guys,

Other thread seems pretty inactive and has lots of pages for A2 Politics.

Was wondering if some others who were doing Ideologies, wanted to share past paper question plans here? For 15 markers and 45s...

I can provide a few questions and we can maybe think of ways of structuring or providing some model answers if anyone has any?

Predicted Questions inserted within spoiler:

Let's help each other guys. The best thing last year was an active thread... let's try and replicate that again this year!

Spoiler:
Show



15s:

To what extent have liberals supported democracy?
To what extent have liberals been critical of democracy?
Explain the link between liberalism and individualism.

ESSAY:

Why is liberal democracy a contradiction in terms? Or To what extent do liberals fear democracy?




CONSERVATISM

15s:

On what grounds do conservatives support paternalism?
On what grounds have conservatives supported organic society.
On what grounds have conservatives supported the notion of private property?

ESSAY:

Is conservatism a ruling class ideology? Or Do Conservatives favour pragmatism over principle?

SOCIALISM

15s:

Why did Marx think that capitalism was doomed to collapse and how would it occur?
Explain the Socialist view of human nature.

ESSAY

To what extent do socialists disagree about the means of achieving socialism? Or TWE is Socialism defined by its opposition to capitalism.

ANARCHISM

15s:

Explain the link between anarchy and utopianism.
Why do Anarchists regard the state as unnecessary?
Why do Anarchist view the state as evil and oppressive?

ESSAY:

Is anarchy a coherent/single ideology?


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vyu
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Here's some of my plans:

15s
ANARCHISM

LIBERALISM

Spoiler:
Show

LINK BETWEEN LIBERALISM AND INDIVIDUALISM

Definitions: Individualism is a belief in the primacy or supreme importance of the human individual over any social group or collective body.

Liberalism is an ideology centred around the individual and seeks to maximise his/her’s freedom to the greatest extent and as a result provide a sense of happiness.

Divide between CL and ML – Historical context – Explain Four categories MEED.

METHODOLGICAL

  • Belief that individual is central to any political theory or social explanation. All statements about society should be made in terms of the individuals who compose it.
  • This is a classical liberal belief as they are in favour of letting the individual flourish in society and the state having smaller input.
  • Link between I and L is the focus is far more about the individual letting them be successful and the fact that the individual is central to everything.


ETHICAL

  • Implies that society should be constructed so as to benefit the individual – giving moral authority to the individual’s rights, needs or interests.
  • ML – believe that the government should intervene when it is necessary to create a just society.
  • ML view is to create a society that empowers the individual and focussing on their rights and interests.
  • The link here between individualism and Modern Liberalism – final goal is Social Justice; objective not equality but social justice.


EGOTISTICAL

  • Self-interestedness and Self-reliance.
  • Competition driving success and wealth creation.
  • “Greed is good.”
  • By being selfish and successful will ultimately lead to success for others.
  • CL – survival is natural instinct and competition drives success and leads to innovation.
  • CL believe however do not believe in wealth accumulation and would rather believe in philanthropy.


DEVELOPMENTAL

  • Prioritises human flourishing over the quest for internal satisfaction.
  • State needs to play a proactive and positive role in developing the individual i.e education, healthcare, welfare system for those that need it.
  • ML also share this belief in the state playing a larger role in developing the individual’s life and offering support.
  • Creates a better society.




SOCIALISM

CONSERVATISM
Spoiler:
Show


CONSERVATIVE AND PATERNALISM

Definitions: Paternalism refers to the exercise of authority over others for the purpose of bringing them benefit or protecting them from harm, acting in a fatherly fashion.

Conservatism is a political philosophy that favours tradition in the face of external forces for change. The two tensions within Conservatism New Right and One Nation have conflicting views of the role of the state.

ONE-NATION

  • Benjamin Disraeli – Duty and Social obligation.
  • Combination of prudence and principle.
  • Moral Values.
  • Keynesian Social Democracy – economy in line with full employment + supporting enlarged welfare provision.
  • “Compassionate Conservatism – Macmillan” Privileged have an obligation to help those who are less fortunate than themselves.
  • NOBLESSE OBLIGE – for the rich to give back.
  • Poor are “deserving” of support as not architects of their own misfortunes.
  • Planned Capitalism.
  • Hierarchical society – organic society – which in turn continues to conserve – as poor are prevented from becoming too poor that they become a threat to the established order and its institutions.


NEOLIBERAL

  • Support a minimal state – one that is merely used to enforce and maintain Law and Order, as well as matters of national security.
  • Leaves matters of economic and moral issues in the hands of the individual.
  • Stability – control currency and public finances. Laissez Faire economics.
  • Economy recovered under Margaret Thatcher.
  • This links with privatisation – that all state mechanisms should be made to model the market – in that competition will drive success and innovation. And parts of it that are failing will be allowed to fail because they are not good enough. “Private good, public bad.”
  • Smith, Hayek, Friedman.
  • They do not believe in welfare state – only really in a limited fashion to act as safety net. Profit and greed as a motive – does not create a “culture of dependency.” Cause not Cure.


NEO-CON

  • Support a strong state.
  • Law and Order and link with public morality – links with biblical code.
  • Fear of social fragmentation – seeks to strengthen leadership and authority within society.
  • Leviathan – people want and need SECURITY and STABILITY.
  • Traditional values must be upheld – socially conservative – if necessary by law. Society is bound by a common culture.
  • Promotion of national patriotism.
  • NEO-CONS do not support welfare and social reform, and so in this sense agree with neo-liberal thinking regarding the state.



Spoiler:
Show


CONSERVATIVE AND PROPERTY

Definitions: A thing of things belonging to someone, possessions collectively.

SECURITY

  • Provides a range of psychological and social advantages. It provides security and property ownership gives people a sense of confidence and assurance, something to “fall back on.”
  • Duty to conserve property handed down to us. TRAD CON.
  • Links with Conservatives view that human beings are first and foremost stability and security seeking creatures.


STAKE IN SOCIETY

  • It promotes social values, e.g respect for others property. Property owners have a stake in society.
  • Which allows them to contribute to the country’s civil society.
  • It shows why Conservatives believe in such high punishment – law and order – theft – stealing property.
  • In America – NEO-CONS – helps in understanding guns. But in Britain helps in understanding Common Ownership of Council Houses on Thatcher.
  • Helps prevent anarchism and self-interest.


IDENTITY

  • Property reflects our personalities.
  • In that people “see” themselves in their property.
  • Personal satisfaction and emotional well-being.


INDIVIDUAL MERIT

  • NEO-LIB view – reflects our merits.
  • Thus as a right.
  • An economic incentive thus reduces individual’s dependency on the state.
  • Thus resistance to high property taxes.
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vyu
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45s:

CONSERVATISM

ANARCHISM

LIBERALISM

Spoiler:
Show


LIBERALISM – ML VS CL (45)

Definitions: “Liberalism is an ideology centred on the individual and seeks to maximise his/her’s freedom to the greatest extent and as a result provide a sense of happiness.

Outline: The ideology has been in existence since the 17th century and as such has faced many changes. This can be manifested in the division between Classical Liberals and Modern Liberals. While both believe in similar outcomes such as priority in individualism, equality and Free Trade, they do too differ on many issues as well as the means of achieving them. This has prompted many to question how great the division is and how different the two tensions are.

MAIN POINTS:

  • Differences: Perception of the state
  • Individualism
  • Social Policy
  • Economy
  • Similarities - Toleration


Individualism:

  • Links back to end of feudalism – individuals became confronted by a broader range of social possibilities.
  • Led to a creation of a society in which each person is capable of developing and flourishing to the fullness of their potential.
  • However, both sides differ once more on how to achieve the maximum freedom for the individual.
  • CL – believe strongly in Methodological Individualism which centres the ideology completely around the individual – They also promote Egotistical Individualism which promotes greed and selfishness in order to promote progress. They believe that a society that it is in competition, that innovation and wealth creation is a by-product. It exploits the fact that human nature is flawed, and in turn seeks to make progress that way.
  • ML – Conflict -> Believe in Ethical Individualism – seeks to morally justify state intervention in order to protect rights, as well as Developmental Individualism which seeks to aid people in developing their potential, by having the welfare state, and strong forms of social mobility.


PERCEPTION OF THE STATE:

  • Traditionally Liberals very suspicious of the state, as a body with the potential to limit personal freedom, and therefore something to be treated with caution.
  • Locke famously stated that the state lay “within the realm of coercion,” prompting liberals to be wary of state interference and seeing its role as to protect the individual from having their freedom impinged upon by others, rather than to interfere with positive aims.
  • ML -> stands in contrast to the original perspective; they believe the state should intervene for positive impact, for example, in welfare, which is under the belief that one becomes free through entitlement to means of self-improvement.
    • o Led by Keynes and put into practise by Clement Atlee – who first created the welfare state, post-WW2.
  • This was originally created by Hobson, Hobhouse, and J.S Mill -> Who believed that Classical Liberalism was too “ruthless.” They believed that the state should intervene. They see the classical liberals ideal state as just as much a threat to individual freedom as state coercion, and thus justify in that way.


Social Policy:

  • CL – adopted a “self-help” stance towards social justice and welfare – believing that any sort of welfare simply encouraged people to be lazy and was a violation of the freedom of individuals to decide how they spent their money, as taxes would be required to pay for it.
  • Furthermore, CL’s –believed in equality before the law, they were decidedly sceptical of any attempt to create material equality, and indeed believed that inequality was inevitable – Samuel Smiles 1859 “heaven helps those who help themselves.” Showing how they believed in the importance of the individual in their own affairs.
  • Belief in equal opportunities and self-realisation as the key to freedom.
  • T.H Green – ML -> believed that liberty was only attainable in favourable economic circumstances, and this necessitated some form of help to be given to those in need in order for them to be free, and modern liberals see welfare as a “hand up, not a hand out.”


Economy:

  • Both however agree on importance of Free Trade to a certain extent.
  • CL -> Laissez Faire economics – providing the greatest amount of liberty as well as clearing the way for economic development.
  • Adam Smith – also emphasised it as a way so that freedom could not be controlled or coerced.
  • ML -> The original economic idea is still present – but has developed into one with more restrictions in order to benefit the greater number of people.
  • Careful management in order to protect both workers and consumers.
  • State managed – in contrast to CL who believe in private enterprise.
  • In order to ensure that levels of provision are equal and that people have the freedom to self-fulfilment; again linking back to their strong commitment to positive freedom as opposed to classical liberal’s negative freedom.
  • Taxes should be levied and regulation implemented throughout the economy to aid provision of certain state services and protect the consumer – Keynesianism.


TOLERATION and CONSTITUTIONALISM: SIMILARITY

  • Liberals believe in a pluralist society where ideas, cultures and religion can all compete in a consumerist way.
  • Voltaire “I despise what you have to say but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
  • Free Market of ideas – people have the freedom to choose what they like.
  • Shared belief in constitutionalism – due to the fact that they believe in the fear of abuses of power by the state. Their belief in human nature is one of that is flawed and can be exploited – they believe that power corrupts and putting mechanisms in place can prevent tyranny.






SOCIALISM
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JamieHarris1998
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Would love some of those questions to come up.
Based on past years exams I would say its extremely likely that we have 2 conservatism 15 markers and 2 in feminism for Unit 4, obviously not certain though
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vyu
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(Original post by JamieHarris1998)
Would love some of those questions to come up.
Based on past years exams I would say its extremely likely that we have 2 conservatism 15 markers and 2 in feminism for Unit 4, obviously not certain though
Do you have anything on those Conservative questions? I'm trying to find stuff, but struggling with coming up with exemplar answers...

Would love for some Anarchism 15 markers ...I swear there is only like 3 things they can ask..?
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JamieHarris1998
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(Original post by vyu)
Do you have anything on those Conservative questions? I'm trying to find stuff, but struggling with coming up with exemplar answers...

Would love for some Anarchism 15 markers ...I swear there is only like 3 things they can ask..?

What I've done is go through every single past paper question that they have asked using their online resources.
In terms of the questions you predicted I have:

"On what grounds do conservatives support paternalism?"
- Paternalism is the idea of exerting authority over a person under the basis of bringing benefit to them or protecting them from harm in a fatherly fashion.
- The paternalist ideas have been mostly supported by the One Nation tradition of conservatives such as Benjamin Disreali.
- Been justified on moral grounds whereby those who disadvantaged in socio-economic ways are there through luck of birth mostly rather than merit. Therefore, they should be considered deserving poor, due to not being responsible for their misfortune. Such thoughts has the implication of the richer and more fortunate members of society having a duty to help those less fortunate due to accident of birth. With greater privilege comes greater duty, as often coined by the phrase, "nobless obliege"
- Also justified on practical grounds around the idea of human imperfection. If those with disadvantages becoming so poor it is much more likely for crime to exist and threaten societies security which threatens order of society and institutions, therefore social intervention to help in a paternal way is the antidote to revolution and social disorder.



"On what grounds have conservatives supported organic society."
-The idea of organic society refers to society forming through natural ways. It has delicate links of organism that cannot be replaced or reformed like a machine would, thus reform or revolution are nothing more than a threat to society.
- They support an organic society because of their collective nature, they believe that for a society to function everyone has their own duties, therefore to prioritise any individuals self striving is to threaten society as a whole due to society not being a collection of individual parts, thus leading to the whole organism of society being threatened if society is reformed in an unorganic machine like way
- They also support it upon the basis of supporting tradition and continuity. Humans are psychologically imperfect and so seek familiar circumstance, and thus rash change to society or reform is dangerous. Therefore they believe that society must move on naturally in an organic fashion so they support the organic society.
-Lastly, their support for law and order which for them forms naturally from things such as hierarchy will lead to the believe of society being organic as everyone is part of the same values and institutions of one natural society.

(Just as a side note, this may be weaker as I think that I mostly focus on the implications of the belief in organic society rather than the actual justifications"


"On what grounds have conservatives supported the notion of private property?" - 4 main reasons here, I'd love this question
- Supported through the idea that humans are psychologically imperfect and therefore are security seeking creatures. Property is the antidote to this, whereby it gives humans something to fallback on in times of need or unfortunate circumstance.
-Property gives people a stake in society, this is the antidote to crime as humans are far less likely to commit crimes that threaten institutions or society because they have a stake in society through the property that they own.
- Property can be a good representation of a persons personality which allows them to express their own individual features. People see themselves in what they own and therefore owning property gives people emotional stability, emotional wellbeing and personal satisfaction.
- Lastly, property is justified by the Liberal New Right ideas of conservatism. For them, society is organic and based on individuals. Property gives individuals something to look up to, and strive towards as an economic incentive. Society is a meritocratic society, therefore the property is justified as being a representation of a person owns is a reflection of an individuals merit. Property ownership is also justified as ownership reduces a persons dependency on the state.
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hw1221
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Hi, Does anyone know a good plan for "To what extent is Conservatism defined by its support for free market capitalism?" I can only think of the neo-liberal side which suggests that is defined by it. Thanks
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JamieHarris1998
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Hi, Does anyone know a good plan for "To what extent is Conservatism defined by its support for free market capitalism?" I can only think of the neo-liberal side which suggests that is defined by it. Thanks
I'd probably try avoid it at all costs if it came up.
But if I were to answer it I'd split it to 4 paragraphs, one on each strand

Start with the liberal new right and debate within it, conclude that it is defined by new right but the ideology is not really conservatism so doesn't play much influence in defining conservative features

Move onto the conservative new right, debate within in it and conclude that despite the free market being an important feature it is more defined by pragmatism and respect for strong state in social stances.

Move onto the paternalistic strand of conservatism and debate around whether things like christian democracy and the One nation support free market. Whilst they appreciate the importance of the market they support intervention and thus surely can't be defined by free market intervention.

Lastly, have Traditional tories, this would be a shorter paragraph I think as there is less to discuss. Would argue that they are more defined by tradition and continuity but would have some debate and counter with them still favouring the capitalist structure.

Conclude - Its not defined by free market capitalism, instead defined by both pragmatism and tradition.
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(Original post by JamieHarris1998)
I'd probably try avoid it at all costs if it came up.
But if I were to answer it I'd split it to 4 paragraphs, one on each strand

Start with the liberal new right and debate within it, conclude that it is defined by new right but the ideology is not really conservatism so doesn't play much influence in defining conservative features

Move onto the conservative new right, debate within in it and conclude that despite the free market being an important feature it is more defined by pragmatism and respect for strong state in social stances.

Move onto the paternalistic strand of conservatism and debate around whether things like christian democracy and the One nation support free market. Whilst they appreciate the importance of the market they support intervention and thus surely can't be defined by free market intervention.

Lastly, have Traditional tories, this would be a shorter paragraph I think as there is less to discuss. Would argue that they are more defined by tradition and continuity but would have some debate and counter with them still favouring the capitalist structure.

Conclude - Its not defined by free market capitalism, instead defined by both pragmatism and tradition.
Thank you, I suppose that's all you can put really. I was worried because the arguements for and against it don't really seem balanced. Lets just hope it doesn't come up.
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vyu
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If the question was say "Anarchism is closer to Liberalism than Socialism" Discuss.

Do we do couple of paras:

IS - Liberalism

ISNT - Socialism

Then one final para - on Anarchism as its own ideology? Or would a comparison be enough?

And i assume we would just compare individualism and collectivism?
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Skania
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(Original post by vyu)
If the question was say "Anarchism is closer to Liberalism than Socialism" Discuss.

Do we do couple of paras:

IS - Liberalism

ISNT - Socialism

Then one final para - on Anarchism as its own ideology? Or would a comparison be enough?

And i assume we would just compare individualism and collectivism?
Hey, this seems like a really good idea. Having all the plans in one place. Il try and work on some which I can PM to you for you to add... I think one of my biggest problems is not having enough content to write about to fill a 45 marker.. usually I can remember enough to do well in a 15... Like for example "The notion of a stateless society is merely an anarchist fantasy." Discuss. I would have only like 1 or 2 paras and then I would have nothing left to go on... Or is that pretty much another way of asking "To what extent is Anarchism a single doctrine?"

If somebody has anything on that, I would be really grateful! Also maybe something on "An anarchist society is both desirable and possible." Discuss...

You can see I'm weak on Anarchism we only spent the last week on it, and so I'm stressing out over it... Might whip out Heywood again..

THANKS x
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You need to do:
Paragraph 1: close to liberalism
Paragraph 2: isn't close to liberalism
Paragraph 3: close to socialism
Paragraph 4: isn't close to socialism.
I did that question in class like that and got 36/45. Hope that helps
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vyu
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(Original post by JamieHarris1998)
What I've done is go through every single past paper question that they have asked using their online resources.
In terms of the questions you predicted I have:

"On what grounds do conservatives support paternalism?"
- Paternalism is the idea of exerting authority over a person under the basis of bringing benefit to them or protecting them from harm in a fatherly fashion.
- The paternalist ideas have been mostly supported by the One Nation tradition of conservatives such as Benjamin Disreali.
- Been justified on moral grounds whereby those who disadvantaged in socio-economic ways are there through luck of birth mostly rather than merit. Therefore, they should be considered deserving poor, due to not being responsible for their misfortune. Such thoughts has the implication of the richer and more fortunate members of society having a duty to help those less fortunate due to accident of birth. With greater privilege comes greater duty, as often coined by the phrase, "nobless obliege"
- Also justified on practical grounds around the idea of human imperfection. If those with disadvantages becoming so poor it is much more likely for crime to exist and threaten societies security which threatens order of society and institutions, therefore social intervention to help in a paternal way is the antidote to revolution and social disorder.



"On what grounds have conservatives supported organic society."
-The idea of organic society refers to society forming through natural ways. It has delicate links of organism that cannot be replaced or reformed like a machine would, thus reform or revolution are nothing more than a threat to society.
- They support an organic society because of their collective nature, they believe that for a society to function everyone has their own duties, therefore to prioritise any individuals self striving is to threaten society as a whole due to society not being a collection of individual parts, thus leading to the whole organism of society being threatened if society is reformed in an unorganic machine like way
- They also support it upon the basis of supporting tradition and continuity. Humans are psychologically imperfect and so seek familiar circumstance, and thus rash change to society or reform is dangerous. Therefore they believe that society must move on naturally in an organic fashion so they support the organic society.
-Lastly, their support for law and order which for them forms naturally from things such as hierarchy will lead to the believe of society being organic as everyone is part of the same values and institutions of one natural society.

(Just as a side note, this may be weaker as I think that I mostly focus on the implications of the belief in organic society rather than the actual justifications"


"On what grounds have conservatives supported the notion of private property?" - 4 main reasons here, I'd love this question
- Supported through the idea that humans are psychologically imperfect and therefore are security seeking creatures. Property is the antidote to this, whereby it gives humans something to fallback on in times of need or unfortunate circumstance.
-Property gives people a stake in society, this is the antidote to crime as humans are far less likely to commit crimes that threaten institutions or society because they have a stake in society through the property that they own.
- Property can be a good representation of a persons personality which allows them to express their own individual features. People see themselves in what they own and therefore owning property gives people emotional stability, emotional wellbeing and personal satisfaction.
- Lastly, property is justified by the Liberal New Right ideas of conservatism. For them, society is organic and based on individuals. Property gives individuals something to look up to, and strive towards as an economic incentive. Society is a meritocratic society, therefore the property is justified as being a representation of a person owns is a reflection of an individuals merit. Property ownership is also justified as ownership reduces a persons dependency on the state.
Hey as a means of maybe kickstarting this thread again...

Do you have anything on Conservatism: "Pragmatism over principle."

Or Socialism: "Socialim is defined by its opposition to capitalism." Discuss.

Would be immensely grateful .. I have some Socialist plans if you'd like?
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Is liberalism likely to be a 45 marker?

If so what would be the qu.....

'Is liberalism a single doctrine' ?

Last year it was about the state.......
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3mmz
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(Original post by vyu)
Hey as a means of maybe kickstarting this thread again...

Do you have anything on Conservatism: "Pragmatism over principle."

Or Socialism: "Socialim is defined by its opposition to capitalism." Discuss.

Would be immensely grateful .. I have some Socialist plans if you'd like?
What grade you aiming for?

I find conservatism 45 markers the hardest tbh
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vyu
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I
(Original post by 3mmz)
What grade you aiming for?

I find conservatism 45 markers the hardest tbh
Yeh tbh the same ...

I would like an A* but you have to get over 90%.. no? Which is f**ked up...

But I really dont feel confident .. I can remember basic stuff, but barely any definitions and quotes by thinkers... I also keep forgetting how to structure stuff ... probably just gonna work 24/7 from now till the exam ...
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mollyadtr
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plans my teacher made for every question, though not in great depth ill probably type up my 45 plans for all the questions ive been through for mondays exam apart from anarchism
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(Original post by 3mmz)
Is liberalism likely to be a 45 marker?

If so what would be the qu.....

'Is liberalism a single doctrine' ?

Last year it was about the state.......
i feel like it could be on democracy but i kinda hope its not
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(Original post by mollyadtr)
i feel like it could be on democracy but i kinda hope its not
Same

How would you answer that.....can you please give me a brief plan
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(Original post by 3mmz)
Same

How would you answer that.....can you please give me a brief plan
theyre fearful:
- tyranny of the majority- minority always lose out
- democracy is for the collective not the individual
- parties may promote infringement of freedom
- mill: make up of society - education/votes
- gassett: mass democracy- revoult of the masses
- fear of excessive democracy
- growth of interventionality

no:
- consent, political voting- universal suffrage- political equality
- checks and balance, constitutionalism
- protection: citizens have voting rights against government - can be used to defend natural rights
- benefits of political participation: development, enhance understanding, without democracy, ignorance and brutality will prevail
- consensus: broad agreement
- defends freedom by ensuring public accountability- classical
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