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Biology Paper 2 AQA Triple Higher 2023

For the biology paper 2 triple higher GCSE, with AQA exam board, do we need to know the process of transcription and translation in the B6 topic? Or just an understanding? I watched a cognito youtube video talking about this, which included things like mRNA, RNA and uracil molecules and it was quite confusing and unclear if we needed to know it for GCSE.
Original post by lolainthesun103
For the biology paper 2 triple higher GCSE, with AQA exam board, do we need to know the process of transcription and translation in the B6 topic? Or just an understanding? I watched a cognito youtube video talking about this, which included things like mRNA, RNA and uracil molecules and it was quite confusing and unclear if we needed to know it for GCSE.


If you're talking about Specification Topic 6: Inheritance, Variation and Evolution, Cognito normally goes beyond what you need to know.
I've heard of transcription and translation I don't think you need to know the names of steps, just that mRNA reads it/latches like a zipper, carries a copy over, carrier molecules bring corresponding amino acids.

You need to know:

(HT only) Students should be able to:

recall a simple description of protein synthesis

explain simply how the structure of DNA affects the protein made

describe how genetic variants may influence phenotype: a) in coding DNA by altering the activity of a protein: and b) in non-coding DNA by altering how genes are expressed.


(HT only) In the complementary strands a C is always linked to a G on the opposite strand and a T to an A.

(HT only) Students are not expected to know or understand the structure of mRNA, tRNA, or the detailed structure of amino acids or proteins.

(HT only) Students should be able to explain how a change in DNA structure may result in a change in the protein synthesised by a gene.

(HT only) Proteins are synthesised on ribosomes, according to a template. Carrier molecules bring specific amino acids to add to the growing protein chain in the correct order.

(HT only) When the protein chain is complete it folds up to form a unique shape. This unique shape enables the proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or forming structures in the body such as collagen.

(HT only) Mutations occur continuously. Most do not alter the protein, or only alter it slightly so that its appearance or function is not changed.

(HT only) A few mutations code for an altered protein with a different shape. An enzyme may no longer fit the substrate binding site or a structural protein may lose its strength. (Note: it's not especially clear here but you do need to understand insertions, deletions and the other one which I think is replacements?)

(HT only) Not all parts of DNA code for proteins. Non-coding parts of DNA can switch genes on and off, so variations in these areas of DNA may affect how genes are expressed.


All this information is from 6.1.5 on the specification.
If you don't already, use the specification when you're revising! It tells you everything.
(edited 8 months ago)
Original post by squidrangle
If you're talking about Specification Topic 6: Inheritance, Variation and Evolution, Cognito normally goes beyond what you need to know.
I've heard of transcription and translation I don't think you need to know the names of steps, just that mRNA reads it/latches like a zipper, carries a copy over, carrier molecules bring corresponding amino acids.

You need to know:

(HT only) Students should be able to:

recall a simple description of protein synthesis

explain simply how the structure of DNA affects the protein made

describe how genetic variants may influence phenotype: a) in coding DNA by altering the activity of a protein: and b) in non-coding DNA by altering how genes are expressed.


(HT only) In the complementary strands a C is always linked to a G on the opposite strand and a T to an A.

(HT only) Students are not expected to know or understand the structure of mRNA, tRNA, or the detailed structure of amino acids or proteins.

(HT only) Students should be able to explain how a change in DNA structure may result in a change in the protein synthesised by a gene.

(HT only) Proteins are synthesised on ribosomes, according to a template. Carrier molecules bring specific amino acids to add to the growing protein chain in the correct order.

(HT only) When the protein chain is complete it folds up to form a unique shape. This unique shape enables the proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or forming structures in the body such as collagen.

(HT only) Mutations occur continuously. Most do not alter the protein, or only alter it slightly so that its appearance or function is not changed.

(HT only) A few mutations code for an altered protein with a different shape. An enzyme may no longer fit the substrate binding site or a structural protein may lose its strength. (Note: it's not especially clear here but you do need to understand insertions, deletions and the other one which I think is replacements?)

(HT only) Not all parts of DNA code for proteins. Non-coding parts of DNA can switch genes on and off, so variations in these areas of DNA may affect how genes are expressed.


All this information is from 6.1.5 on the specification.
If you don't already, use the specification when you're revising! It tells you everything.

Thank you so much this is a huge help- I've never really looked properly at the specification but I can see it's definitely useful so I'll be looking thru that!!
Original post by lolainthesun103
Thank you so much this is a huge help- I've never really looked properly at the specification but I can see it's definitely useful so I'll be looking thru that!!


The specification is literally a lifesaver. Sciences especially nearly say everything you need to know on there, which is really helpful!

Good luck
Original post by squidrangle
If you're talking about Specification Topic 6: Inheritance, Variation and Evolution, Cognito normally goes beyond what you need to know.
I've heard of transcription and translation I don't think you need to know the names of steps, just that mRNA reads it/latches like a zipper, carries a copy over, carrier molecules bring corresponding amino acids.

You need to know:

(HT only) Students should be able to:

recall a simple description of protein synthesis

explain simply how the structure of DNA affects the protein made

describe how genetic variants may influence phenotype: a) in coding DNA by altering the activity of a protein: and b) in non-coding DNA by altering how genes are expressed.


(HT only) In the complementary strands a C is always linked to a G on the opposite strand and a T to an A.

(HT only) Students are not expected to know or understand the structure of mRNA, tRNA, or the detailed structure of amino acids or proteins.

(HT only) Students should be able to explain how a change in DNA structure may result in a change in the protein synthesised by a gene.

(HT only) Proteins are synthesised on ribosomes, according to a template. Carrier molecules bring specific amino acids to add to the growing protein chain in the correct order.

(HT only) When the protein chain is complete it folds up to form a unique shape. This unique shape enables the proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or forming structures in the body such as collagen.

(HT only) Mutations occur continuously. Most do not alter the protein, or only alter it slightly so that its appearance or function is not changed.

(HT only) A few mutations code for an altered protein with a different shape. An enzyme may no longer fit the substrate binding site or a structural protein may lose its strength. (Note: it's not especially clear here but you do need to understand insertions, deletions and the other one which I think is replacements?)

(HT only) Not all parts of DNA code for proteins. Non-coding parts of DNA can switch genes on and off, so variations in these areas of DNA may affect how genes are expressed.


All this information is from 6.1.5 on the specification.
If you don't already, use the specification when you're revising! It tells you everything.


you do not need to know the differnt types of mutations mutation.pngbut need to understand that it can have an effect on phenotype. Here is an example question related ro that part of the spec (5 marks)
(edited 8 months ago)
Original post by humble heroics
you do not need to know the differnt types of mutations mutation.pngbut need to understand that it can have an effect on phenotype. Here is an example question related ro that part of the spec (5 marks)

Thanks, @humble heroics!

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