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Describe: Constructive plate boundaries
Constructive: Moving apart. As 2 plates move apart, magma rises and fills the gap. Results in volcanoes
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Describe: Destructive plate boundaries
Destructive: Moving together. One plate moves under the other. As plate descends, it starts to melt due to friction. Results in very fierce volcanoes and earthquakes.
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Describe: Conservative plate boundaries
Conservative: Side by side. When 2 plates slide past each other along a fault. Results in earthquakes.
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Describe: Main vent
Main vent: This is the pipe up the middle of the volcano.
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Describe: Magma chamber
Magma chamber: This is the source of the molten rock.
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Describe: Crater
Crater: This is the depression at the top of the vent.
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Describe: Parasitic Cones
Parasitic cones: This is a secondary cone forming on the side of a volcano.
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Give 3 volcanic emissions
Anything from: volcanic rocks, lava, lahar, falling ash or steam
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Give 3 reasons why people live in dangerous areas
1) Ash and lava is broken down to form a fertile soil. 2) Crops can be produced ver easily. 3) Tourists are attracted to areas of volcanic activity - wealthier economy. 4) Geothermal energy is found under the ground.
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What are the 3 types of volcanoes?
Active, dormant and extinct
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Describe the 2 volcanic shapes
Shield: Occur at constructive plate boundaries. Lava is runny and can flow far away. Gentle-sided. Do not erupt as violently. Composite: Occur at destructive plate boundaries. Lava is thick and can't flow as freely. Steep-sided. Erupt violently.
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Give 2 ways how we can predict volcanic eruptions
Anything from: Small earthquakes, Gases, Water temperatures increase. Volcano shapes change.
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What is an earthquake?
A movement or tremor of the earth's crust.
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Where are the 2 areas where earthquakes are common?
The belt down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and the belt that follows the West coast or North and South America.
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Describe the 3 steps to an earthquake.
1) 2 plates at a plate boundary can't move past each other easily. 2) The plates become locked. 3) Friction causes pressure to build up. Suddenly, the pressure is released and the plates jolt into a new position. This causes seismic waves.
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What does the Richter Scale measure?
The magnitude of an earthquake (how powerful it is)
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How is the magnitude displayed?
As whole numbers and decimals.
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What does the Mercalli scale measure?
How much damage the earthquake has done.
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What is the focus?
The focus is the point at which the rock moves.
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What are seismic waves?
Seismic waves start at the focus and move outwards.
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What is the epicentre?
The epicentre is directly above the focus on the earth's surface.
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What are the 3 p's?
Predict, Plan, Protect
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How do we predict?
-Water levels rise in wells and lakes -A tilt meter can check any movement within the rocks -Foreshocks before the main quake can be detected by a seismometer -Animals can act strangely
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How do we plan and protect?
-Enforce regulations to make some buildings 'earthquake proof'. -Locate emergency supplies throughout a city -Provide and design areas for refuge -Organise regular 'earthquake practices' -Advise households to plan for an earthquake
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Give 3 reasons why people visit places
1) culture 2) natural resources 3) entertainment
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Give 3 reasons why tourism has increased
Anything from: The internet, Changing lifestyles, Improved transport, Higher salaries, Advertising, more leisure time and car ownership
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Give 2 benefits and problems with tourism
Benefits: Encourages investment from government, more jobs for people, people can experience different languages and culture. Problems: better tourist jobs rarely go to locals, Most money goes out of area, people from abroad move to the area.
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What do primary, secondary and tertiary people do?
Primary: Provide raw materials, product comes from land or sea Secondary: something is made, usually done in a factory. Tertiary: Provide a service, is helpful to people.
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What are national parks?
National parks are large areas of beautiful countryside. Their scenery is protected so that everyone can enjoy them.
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Give 2 reasons why they were created
1) To preserve and care for the environment 2)To provide a place for recreation and enjoyment.
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How many original parks were there?
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Name all 13 and say where they are on a map
Northumberland, Yorkshire Dales, North York Moors, Peak District, The Broads, The South Downs, New Forest, Dartmoor, Exmoor, Pembrokeshire Coast, Brecon Beacons, Snowdonia and The Lake District.
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What is a honeypot?
A honeypot site is a place of natural or historical interest that attracts people in large numbers e.g. Windermere: picnic sites, views, camp, tourist information etc.
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2 consequences pf tourism in the Massai Mara
Anything from: -Some drivers drive very near to the animals and scare them -When they drive off the track, this leads to soil erosion -Hot air balloons cast a shadow which confuses the animals -Tourist lodges use too much water
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What is: A fragile environment? Coral? Coral reef?
Fragile environment: Parts of the natural world that can be easily damaged. Coral: A type of limestone made up of skeletons of dead fish. Coral Reef: A band of coral which forms a fragile environment.
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Give 3 problems at the beach
-Beaches may be polluted -Wildlife disappears when natural habitat is destroyed -Natural vegetation cleared for building -Farmland is lost -Busy coastal roads -Coral reef is damaged
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What is sustainable development?
A method od progress that does not waste resources and looks after the needs of today without damaging resources for the future.
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What is ecotourism?
A type of sustainable tourism which aims to take into account environmental, cultural and social considerations.
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Give 2 solutions to safari problems
-Camping safaris are organised -Since the conservation area was created, there has been a total absence of poaching, snaring or harassment of wildlife. -10% of Massai tribal land has been given to them as private land. -Locals employed more
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What are the 3 different types of rock?
Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic
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Describe: Igneous rocks
Igneous rocks: formed by the solidification of molten material.
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Describe: Sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary: Made form layers of sediment. Grainy and crumbly and may contain fossils.
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Describe: Metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic: Formed by the effect of extreme pressures and temperatures deep within the earth.
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What is weathering?
The action of the weather, plants and animals on rocks. The rocks are broken down without being removed.
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What is erosion, transportation and deposition?
Erosion: The wearing away and removal of rock, soil,etc. by rivers, sea, ice and wind. Transportation: The movement of eroded material by rivers, sea, ice and wind. Deposition: The layering down of material carried by rivers, sea, ice and wind.
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What is biological weathering?
Caused by plants and animals. E.G: seeds blow into a crack, crack gives moisture and shelter, roots develop, tree grows, roots break up rock.
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What is chemical weathering?
Caused by the action of water. Rainwater contains small amounts of acid. When it comes into contact with the rock, the acid attacks and causes the rock to wear away.
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How is limestone formed?
Millions of years ago, the UK was covered by a shallow, warm ocean. Millions and millions of tiny sea creatures died and fell to the bottom of the ocean. Over time, the deposits built up and formed regular, block shaped limestone.
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What are the 4 types of weathering?
Freeze-Thaw, Onion skin, Biological and Chemical
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Explain freeze-thaw and onion skin weathering
Freeze-Thaw: When there is a crack in the rock, water falls into it and freezes and thaws repeatedly until the rock breaks. Onion skin: Rock is repeatedly subjected to heat + cold. Outer layer expands and contracts and peels off.
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Give 2 limestone locations in the UK
Brecon Beacons, Yorkshire Dales, Peak District, Mendip Hills and Cheviot Hills
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What acid is formed when rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide?
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
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Give 3 features of limestone
Limestone pavement, limestone gorges, caves + caverns, intermittent damage, pot holes, swallow holes, shake holes, stalactites and stalagmites.
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Is limestone acidic or alkaline?
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What are clients and grykes?
Clints: Flat upper surfaces of pavement Grykes: The cracks in the pavement
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How are swallow holes formed?
When rainwater falls onto impermeable rock, streams and rivers may form. When the river then flows onto permeable rock, the river flows into the joints and disappears underground. The joint will get wider and become a hole.
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How are caves/caverns formed?
Caverns form where some of the underground limestone is dissolved more quickly than the rock around it. These cracks allow lots of water through, which dissolves away the rock completely by chemical solution and a cavern forms.
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How are limestone gorges formed?
When the roof of a cavern collapses, a steep-sided valley is formed called a gorge.
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What are some problems facing Africa?
Starvation, not enough money, poverty, malnourished, not good healthcare, bad conditions.
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What are the 4 biomes in Africa?
Semi-Desert, Desert, Savanna and Rainforest
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What is a drought?
A drought is a period of time when an area lacks water.
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Give 3 impacts of drought
-Vegetation won't grow properly -Increase in disease -Cattle dying -Lack of clean drinking water -People starving because no crops grow
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How can aid help?
Aid can give people back their health or optimism. It keeps people alive and prevents people from dying.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Describe: Destructive plate boundaries


Destructive: Moving together. One plate moves under the other. As plate descends, it starts to melt due to friction. Results in very fierce volcanoes and earthquakes.

Card 3


Describe: Conservative plate boundaries


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Describe: Main vent


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Describe: Magma chamber


Preview of the front of card 5
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