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Edexcel A2 History - Germany 1900-45 - Monday 8th June 2015 [Exam Discussion Thread] Watch

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    *** OFFICIAL EDEXCEL HISTORY 6HI03 D1 KAISER TO FÜHRER JUNE 2015 EXAM DISCUSSION THREAD ***

    Date: 8th June 2015
    Time: 09:00am
    Duration: 2h 00m

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    ORIGINAL KAISER TO FÜHRER 1900-45 MEGATHREAD:
    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=1633199

    tggfootymad's recommended Oxbridge Notes guide:
    http://www.oxbridgenotes.co.uk/notes...-1900-45-notes

    Spoiler:
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    General Information
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    Broad analysis



    Political Parties and groups in Germany

    SDP - (Socialist/Social Democratic)
    DAP- (Nationalist)
    DNVP- (National-conservative)
    Spartacus League
    KPD - Communist
    BVP - Conservative/ Christian Democratic
    NSDAP - National Socialist

    Information on particular issues.

    The Arms Race (1905-14)
    Statistics of the Arms Race

    The Moroccan Crisis (1905-6)

    The Daily Telegraph Affair (28 October, 1908)
    Document from the Affair

    The Haldane Mission
    Document from the Mission (Feb 1912)

    Books of interest -
    Imperial Germany 1871-1918


    Broadly speaking, your course is split into a number of issues and controversies

    • Controversy one - to what extent was Germany responsible for WW1? The main things you need to look at are German foreign policy c.1900-14 and the controversy surrounding Germany's 'war guilt'
    • Controversy two - how popular was the Nazi regime and how effectively did the Nazi state operate from 1933-39? The main issues for this one are degree of consent the Nazi regime received, extent to which this was reliant on terror and repression, the role of Hitler, cumulative radicalisation and whether Nazi state was a chaotic 'polycracy'.

    .
    But there are other issues that must be considered before tackling either controversy

    • The German Empire (1871 to 1918)
    • Weimar Republic (1919 to 1933)
    • The rise of the NSDAP/Nazi Party (1925 to 1933)
    • The Second World War (1939 to 1945)
    • The Final Solution (Jan 20, 1942 to 1945)


    How long is the paper and how many marks is each question worth?

    • Two questions – Section a) 30 marks. Section b) 40 marks
    • 70 marks in total
    • 50-55 minutes, including planning should be spent on Section A
    • 65-70 minutes, including planning should be spent on Section B
    • Both units assume you have an understanding of the different historical perspectives relating to the question. Therefore historiography, not provenance is the most important aspect to understand when evaluating different perspectives.



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    RESOURCES:
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    Contributions made by other users -

    Exam Layout:
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    Part A:

    30 marks. (I would) Spend 10 minutes planning and 40 minutes writing. Choice of two questions from anything in the entire course (except the controversies, I think!) Possible questions / areas include:

    2nd Reich:

    Kaiser’s responsibility for political problems faced by the Second Reich pre -1914.
    The role of moderate reform in maintaining the political status quo pre-1914.
    'The political system of the 2nd Reich was primarily an autocracy of the elites' How far do you agree?
    Impact of WW1 on existing social and political tensions.
    Reason for Kaiser’s abdication?

    Weimar Republic:

    Stability of the Weimar republic.
    Impact of Versailles terms on the stability of the Weimar Republic.
    How far do you agree that Germany experienced a period of political calm, economic development, and social progress in the period 1925 - 29?
    To what extent was the collapse of the Weimar Republic caused by the lurch to the right by leading politicians after 1930?

    Nazi Germany:

    Rise of the Nazis.
    Nazi consolidation of Power.
    Reasons for final solution.
    Reasons for poor WW2 War Economy.

    NB: All of the above sample questions that I have included were ones created by my (very good) history teachers. They have chosen which factor to focus the question on, but the actual question could ask about another factor instead. In any case, include 4 or 5 factors.

    Part B:

    40 marks. (I would) Spend 10-15 minutes planning 55-60 minutes writing. Choice of two controversies: Germany’s role in causing the First World War and the popularity and efficiency of the Nazi state, 1933 - 39.

    There are 24 out of the 40 marks on part b for source use, so USE THEM THROUGHOUT. As a set, have them drive your answer, using own knowledge throughout to support your argument.

    WW1:

    Germany's fault:
    -Long term expansionist aims of Germany = wanted an Empire, Weltpolitik (use both Moroccan Crises as an example), Flottenpolitik and the antagonisation of the British.
    -Use of War as a distraction from domestic problems? = SPD became biggest party in Reichstag 1912 elections, long-term political and economic problems created by Industrialisation + Urbanisation threatened the political status quo, many elites believed war was the best way to preserve the monarchy.
    -Power of military = Zabern affair, military potentially pushing Kaiser towards War.

    NOT Germany's fault:
    -Actions of other powers = Britain engaged in arms race to defend its naval superiority and Empire, A-H's aggressive actions in the Balkans
    '-> LINKS TO: -Fear of encirclement = all European powers only felt safe in the rising tension by increasing armaments and staying close to their loyal allies (Entente powers of Br, Fr + Ru. Central powers of Ger + A-H)

    NB: If you are choosing this one you SHOULD be aware of the historiography surrounding Germany's blame, particularly Fischer's thesis. In the exam, you will probably get a source where you can comment something along the lines of " '.......' (Source A) rejects Fischer's opinion that Germany went to war on imperialist ambitions alone", or whatever. Link this back to the question though... "and therefore it can be seen how Germany's fear of encirclement was a crucial factor, more so than supposed imperialist ambitions", if that is your argument.

    Pop. + Eff. of Nazi State '33 - '39:

    Well, I am not choosing this one, as I feel there is more to learn and more could be asked of you. However, I can say that you should focus on these areas:

    -Groups that it gained popularity with (e.g. Youth was the most popular?).
    -Lack of opposition + reasons (e.g. Terror, propaganda?).
    -Hitler's role as dictator in the Nazi regime.

    etc.


    How popular was the Nazi Regime 1933-39?

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    Reasons for consent

    Removal of the communist threat. Reichstag fire allowed for use of legal means of seizing power.
    Propaganda. Goebbels moved quickly to ensure complete control of the media. Assosciation of German publishers purged of non-Nazis. Editor's law enforced racially pure journalism.
    Cult of the fuhrer. Aimed to identify national rebirth with Hitler. Aimed to make Hitler seem benevolent.
    Reduction of unemployed. State provided money to private companies to create new jobs. Conscription was re-introduced, taking a chunk out of unemployment. Labour Front built roads, further reducing. The unskilled working classes received apprenticeships.
    Economic recovery. Schacht appointed president of Reichsbank. Great economist. Introduced the new plan: Trade agreements with other countries, i.e. in South America. Mefo Bills stimulated economy.
    Fun stuff: KDF gave loyal workers evening classes, package holidays, sporting competitions.
    Weltpolitik once more.

    Gleichschaltung

    The 'Nazification' of German society. People joined the NSDAP to further careers. Various institutions reformed under the Nazi banner (i.e Reich Corporation of German industry) - this eliminated the possibility of rival organisations or dissent.
    All lawyers were co-ordinated into the Nazi lawyers association. This allowed Nazi legislation to be given full legal endorsement. The Reichstag Fire Decree suspended all civil liberties and rights, increased the power of the state, and re-introduced draconian penalties for crime.

    Propaganda

    Goebbels became minister of public enlightenment and propaganda.
    He moved quickly to seize control of ALL forms of communication. The NSDAP had complete control of the media.
    Association of German publishers was purged. The Editor's law enforced racially pure journalism. All Jewish, communist, and socialist journalists were dismissed.
    The cult of the Fuhrer. Aimed to identify national rebirth with Hitler. Aimed to make Hitler appear benevolent. Goebbels used him sparingly to preserve his "god-like mystique"
    The successes of the regime were all linked to Hitler. Most Germans blamed the problems on the extremists rather than the NSDAP.
    Film used. Had innovative directors. Examples include the Triumph of the Will and Olympia.
    State press agency, the DNB, monitored all news material.
    Used the new technology of radio. Produced a very cheap radio for Germans. Could sustain huge audience.

    Economic Recovery

    Working class support was conditional on an improvement in the economic situation.
    NSDAP introduced legislation and initiatives to reduce unemployment.
    Work schemes introduced. Involved many Germans. Built the Autobahn. "The best possible way to bring the German people back into work is to set German economic life once more in motion through great monumental works"
    The state lent money to private companies so that they could create jobs.
    Military conscription was re-introduced which further reduced unemployment.
    NSDAP also tried to help peasantry. Reich food estate took control of planning of agriculture. Reich Farm Law attempted to enhance security of peasant ownership of land.
    A 'battle for production' aimed to stimulate grain production to feed the German population.
    Training schemes for the unskilled and apprenticeships for the working class school leavers.

    Indoctrination

    Boys aged 10-14 joined the German Young People. From 14-16 they joined the Hitler Youth. The Youth Leader of the Reich was told to educate young people "Physically, Mentally, and Morally in the spirit of National Socialism.
    Girls were taught to be loyal, submissive and prolific mothers. They joined the league of young girls at 10 and the league of German girls at 14.
    Membership for groups became compulsory.
    Jewish teachers were fired. Teachers encouraged to join NS Teachers alliance - 97% of teachers joined. Teachers went on courses in Nazi ideology.

    Tensions between armed forces and state

    Aristocratic generals let Hitler take power as they thought he could be tamed within a conservative dominated coalition.
    To Hitler, the "Nazi revolution" meant bringing about cultural change based on the concept of race. The SA called for a "second revolution" - Hitler called for an end to revolution, and changed SA leader Rohm's role.
    The SA got slightly out of hand. For example, in some areas it had its own police force. It had a huge membership. Rohm wanted to turn the SA into a militia - he demanded SA take over national defence.
    Hitler instead gave his support to the Armed Forces. He told Rohm the SA's function was political not military.

    How did the Regime curtail the army?

    Hitler went out if his way to reassure the armed forces of his support. "My faith in the Wehrmacht in unshakable".
    Some army leaders were sceptical about his plans to gain Lebensraum and expand eastwards. They felt Germany was not ready to go to war.
    Hitler found out that War Minister von Blomberg's wife was a prostitute. He fired him.
    Hitler took over the leadership of the army himself.
    Hitler took the opportunity to remove from post those who were not considered to be completely loyal. Hitler had complete control.

    Opposition from the left

    The Communists/KPD are the most obvious threat. The German people themselves felt threatened by a Communist seizure of power. Hitler made it clear his intention was 'To destroy the Marxist threat'.
    The Reichstag Fire gave the Nazis the legal opportunity (through the Fire Decree) to seize power. 10,000 communists arrested.
    Himmler set up a concentration camp at Dachau to house political opponents in 'protective custody'. The repressive state made organisation very, very difficult.
    Evidence of some working class opposition: Wages stagnated, working hour’s lengthened, industrial accidents increased.
    Communist and Socialist divisions once again ****** things up, they couldn’t agree.
    Exiles produced leaflets which were smuggled into Germany.

    Opposition from the Right

    Conservatives thought they'd be able to control Hitler once he'd gotten into power.
    They agreed with Hitler's destruction of democracy. They actively worked towards the Fuhrer.
    Few were willing to resist. Those who did felt that the NSDAP was undermining and morally corrupting Germany.
    Von Papen's "Marburg speech". Praised some aspects of the Regime. Warned against the second revolution. Was a potential rallying call for the army to act. It clarified to Hitler the level of discontent in conservative circles. For the Regime to continue it needed continued economic growth and for this he needed the conservative support.
    Operation Hummingbird was the name of a purge that took place on 30th June. Hitler had heard rumours of an SA rebellion. He arrested Rohm. Political enemies were murdered such as ex-chancellor von Schleicher and Von Bose (the author of the Marubrg speech) and Nazi Radical Strausser.
    Lutze took over Rohm's place. SA's influential position was finished.

    Opposition from Churches

    Protestant national bishop was elected by Hitler.
    Dissident Protestants formed the confession church led by Niemoller. They wanted independence from the regime. Didn't necessarily disagree with it as a whole.
    Leading dissidents easily intimidate and imprisoned.
    Catholics generally answered to the pope moreso than Hitler.
    Hitler signed concordat with Catholics to give church control over education and youth groups in return for political neutrality.

    Terror

    The SS had been accumulating police powers. Goring incorporated the Prussian political police with the Gestapo. Himmler control of police in Bavaria. Himmler became 'inspector of the Gestapo'.
    SS Created a huge concentration camp system in which enemies of the Nazi's could be imprisoned and their Labour exploited.
    SS assumed complete control of running these camps.
    After operation hummingbird, SS became main police arm of the NSDAP with the aim of eliminating opposition within the state.
    Himmler became head of German police in 1936. Controlled everything.
    "Never before in no other land, had an organisation attained such a comprehensive penetration of society, possessed such power and reached such a degree of completeness in its ability to arouse terror and horror".
    Courts deemed that all police actions carrying out the will of the leadership must be legal. They were unrestrained.

    Was the Gestapo overestimated?

    Gestapo only had 32k members in all of Germany. Often short-staffed. In the city of Hanover there were on 42 officers.
    Not that many informers.
    Claims most prosecutions were the result of reporting from hostile or jealous neighbours.

    Resistenz

    Broszat claimed that indifference towards the regime undermined it's authority and impact.
    Examples of resistants include independent institutions such as the church, the armed forces. Expression through groups i.e. factory strike, religious criticisms. Civil disobedience such as not going to NSDAP gatherings, refusal to give Hitler salute. Communities outside those of NS i.e. Social gatherings of SPD, youth groups.
    They played an actual role in curtailing the impact of the nation socialist regime and national socialist ideology.

    Loyal Reluctance

    The idea of people and Resistenz was not so much from a desire to dissent against the regime but for other purposes. For example women wore make up to look good, not dissent.
    A lot of the population were indifferent to politics.
    Their grumbles would have been the same regardless of who had power.


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    Sorry you've not had any responses about this. Are you sure you’ve posted in the right place? Posting in the specific Study Help forum should help get more responses. Hopefully someone will be able to get back to you
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    Had a mock in this today. Was on controversy (a) and the Weimar Republic. Does anyone have model answers for either topic?


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    (Original post by CD223)
    Had a mock in this today. Was on controversy (a) and the Weimar Republic. Does anyone have model answers for either topic?


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    That's not a controversy though right? I thought Part B only was? Anyways what was the question my african american brother from another mother?
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    (Original post by WilliamSlim)
    That's not a controversy though right? I thought Part B only was? Anyways what was the question my african american brother from another mother?
    Sorry, to clarify, I meant Controversy A to mean Germany and her responsibility for World War One.

    Part A was "to what extent were political extremists the most serious threat to the Weimar Republic 1919-24?"

    Part B was "The First World War was not primarily caused by German aggression. How far do you agree?"


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    Hi, I'm doing History too but am really struggling with everything any revision tips? I really find it hard to get all the info to stick in also anyone have any perfect answers so I can get a grade A or B?
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    (Original post by tessimoghaddam)
    Hi, I'm doing History too but am really struggling with everything any revision tips? I really find it hard to get all the info to stick in also anyone have any perfect answers so I can get a grade A or B?
    Hey there! I'm not sure about good answers, but have you got the my revision notes Hodder revision guide? The answers at the end of each chapter are gold dust haha.
    My tip would be to use revision cards! I've got about 100 so far. Really snappy facts on each one. Go through them regularly and then plan an essay from a past year using what you've covered. Helped me last year and it's what I'm gonna do this year too


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    (Original post by tessimoghaddam)
    Hi, I'm doing History too but am really struggling with everything any revision tips? I really find it hard to get all the info to stick in also anyone have any perfect answers so I can get a grade A or B?
    Maybe you could also do question answer plans for each type of question you could get in the tests? What I did and I got an A in the exam... getting a B overall :P Then you could do a whole question using your plan, or just learn your plan :P
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    (Original post by Lee17)
    Maybe you could also do question answer plans for each type of question you could get in the tests? What I did and I got an A in the exam... getting a B overall :P Then you could do a whole question using your plan, or just learn your plan :P
    I tried this for Russia last year and it worked well so I plan on doing so again this year!


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    Can a moderator please move this from the A level section to the History section?


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    (Original post by CD223)
    Hey guys,

    As it's a little under 6 months until this exam I thought I would make the thread for all people on here who are going to be taking it!

    Date: 8th June 2015
    Time: 09:00am
    Duration: 2h 00m

    Any resources or revision tips people are willing to share?
    Hey, have you done the mock?
    My teacher said we're not having a mock, but then said revise all the controversy bit because we're going to be assessed on a question... basically like a mock but on the topics we've done!

    What sort of stuff did you learn for the controversy?
    This is what i've been revising just now:
    - the alliance system, all about the European powers, but i don't know how much i need to know about this?
    - the different crises, how they escalated tensions, who was to blame for these
    - something about diplomatic policy and whether Germany was being defensive/aggressive - where would this fit in?
    - About the main factors for war starting (e.g. Great powers slithered over the brink) and whether or not Germany was to blame and you link these to the crises which acts as evidence
    - Do you need to know much about particular historians and their views e.g. the all famous Fischer? lol
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    I'm so glad for this thread, the exam part of A2 history is actually quite difficult, compared to AS at least
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    (Original post by DoTheEducations)
    Hey, have you done the mock?
    My teacher said we're not having a mock, but then said revise all the controversy bit because we're going to be assessed on a question... basically like a mock but on the topics we've done!

    What sort of stuff did you learn for the controversy?
    This is what i've been revising just now:
    - the alliance system, all about the European powers, but i don't know how much i need to know about this?
    - the different crises, how they escalated tensions, who was to blame for these
    - something about diplomatic policy and whether Germany was being defensive/aggressive - where would this fit in?
    - About the main factors for war starting (e.g. Great powers slithered over the brink) and whether or not Germany was to blame and you link these to the crises which acts as evidence
    - Do you need to know much about particular historians and their views e.g. the all famous Fischer? lol
    Yeah I got 60/70 in the mock we just did
    It sounds like you've learnt the main parts of what you need! Have you got the red Edexcel textbook? It's really helpful learning the content! At least in that, it does go into a bit of depth on Fischer and Wehler's ideas such as Primat der Innenpolitik etc.


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    (Original post by DoTheEducations)
    I'm so glad for this thread, the exam part of A2 history is actually quite difficult, compared to AS at least
    It is certainly harder than AS! Hoping that a lot of revision will pay off come June!


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    What evidence is there that weltpolitik made war inevitable? I'm trying to analyse these 3 sources and have no idea what they are on about or what evidence to use Name:  ImageUploadedByStudent Room1424882646.737192.jpg
Views: 1197
Size:  198.2 KB


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    (Original post by Nchomuzinda)
    What evidence is there that weltpolitik made war inevitable? I'm trying to analyse these 3 sources and have no idea what they are on about or what evidence to use Name:  ImageUploadedByStudent Room1424882646.737192.jpg
Views: 1197
Size:  198.2 KB


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    I would quote the War Council meeting of 1912 and use it to explain how that shows Germany to be forward planning their naval expansion and how they anticipated war in 1914 to be the best time to go to war before Russia and France rearmed in 1916.


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    Thanks! I've got a mock tomorrow hopefully it should be alright :/


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    (Original post by Nchomuzinda)
    Thanks! I've got a mock tomorrow hopefully it should be alright :/


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    No worries! Ah! I've got a mock on Friday! Let us know how it goes - good luck!


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    Did any of you guys attend the UCL institute of education conference for this exam today?
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    (Original post by pearl_rose)
    Did any of you guys attend the UCL institute of education conference for this exam today?
    I attended a very similar conference there at the end of November! How'd you find it?
 
 
 
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