Biology

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What are specialised cells?
They come together to make tissue, the tissue then makes organs (such as the heart and kidney), the organs make organ systems, organ systems come together to make organism.
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What is a prokaryot?
A bacterial cell. It is a single-celled organism and has simple structures, it doesn't have a nucleus.
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What is a eukaryot?
A plant and animal cell. It is made up of complex cells with a nucleus.
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What is an electron microscope?
A microscope that uses beams of electrons to create an image of the specimen.
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What are the two types of electron microscope?
Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope.
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What does a Scanning microscope do?
It passes a beam of electrons repeatedly across the surface of an object.
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What does a Transmission microscope do?
It passes a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of the object.
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Name 3 points of light microscopes.
Smaller and lighter, less expensive, poorer magnification.
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What is endothelial tissue?
It is a layer of flattened cells that are one layer thick. They line the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
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What is the process of alveoli?
They exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood capillaries to the alveolus.
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How can the endothelial tissue become damaged?
Through carbon monoxide and high blood pressure, it can damage the lining of the arteries.
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What is vital capacity?
The largest volume of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in one breath.
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What is residual volume?
The air that is never removed from the lungs. approx. 1l.
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What is tidal volume?
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in each breath.
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What is the function of the nucleus?
It directs cell activities and stores genetic information called chromosomes and DNA.
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What is the cell wall used for?
It is used for support.
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What does the cell membrane do?
It allows small molecules in and out of the cell.
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What does the mitochondria do?
Makes energy out of food.
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What is the function of the cytoplasm?
All chemical reactions take place here.
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What does the vacuole do?
It makes the plant cell turgid.
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What are the chloroplasts?
They use sunlight to create energy for photosynthesis.
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When were light microscopes developed?
In the 16th century.
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What is the equation for magnification?
Magnification (M) = Size of image (I) / Actual size (A)
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What is the golgi apparatus?
Proteins are modified and packed into vesicles.
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What is the rough ER?
Proteins are synthesised and transported and ribosomes are attached.
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What is the smooth ER?
It is responsible for synthesis and transport of lipids and carbohydrates.
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What are lysosomes?
They are vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes. They break down waste materials inside the cells.
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What is the function of animal cells?
They synthesise proteins for use inside the cell. It leads to cell multiplication.
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What is the function of a plant cell?
The main function is to produce carbohydrates during photosynthesis.
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What is the function of a bacterial cell?
They produce and secrete toxins that have an effect on other organisms.
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Name an organelle found in a plant cell that is not present in an animal cell?
Chloroplasts.
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What is a palisade mesophyll cell?
They are cells that contain chloroplasts and are found in leaves. The chloroplasts can absorb a large amount of light for photosynthesis. Palisade cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
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What is water potential?
A measure of the ability of water molecules to move in a solution of high pressure to low pressure.
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Root Hair Cells
It is a root because it has no chloroplast. They increase the surface area of the cell to maximise absorption of water and minerals. It has high WP outside and low WP inside.
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What are sperm cells?
They are male gametes and have 23 chromosomes. They have a tail structure called a undulipodium to help them move.
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What is an acrosome?
It is the head of a sperm cell which contains digestive systems. The enzymes are released when the sperm meets the egg.
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What is gram staining?
It is used to identify types of infectious bacteria and the treatment differs based on the outcome.
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What does "turgor" mean?
It is when the cell is rigid due to the pressure of the contents on the cell wall.
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What is another name for red blood cells?
Erythrocytes.
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What are egg cells?
The female gametes in animals. It is one of the largest cells in the human body.
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What is haeoglobin?
It is the protein molecule in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body, and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
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What shape are red blood cells and why?
They are biconcave. This is to increase the surface area to volume ratio of a red blood cell.
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What is the function of erythrocytes?
To transport oxygen around the body.
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What is a pathogen?
A micro-organism that can cause disease.
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What is an antigen?
A molecule on the surface of all cells, e.g. on the surface of pathogens and viruses.
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What are neutrophils?
They are a type of white blood cell and they are important for the immune system.
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What are the 4 main types of tissue in animals?
Epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous.
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There are 3 types of epithelium tissue, what are they?
Squamous, columnar and endothelium.
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What is squamous epithelial tissue?
It is a lining tissue that is one cell thick. It is made from specialised squamous epithelial cells.
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Lungs can become damaged from smoking causing...
...breathlessness, persistent coughing and phlegm.
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What is columnar epithelial tissue?
It is made up of column-shaped ciliated cells with cilia covering the exposed surfaces. Ciliated epithelium lines the trachea to protect the lungs from infection.
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Name 3 types of muscle tissue.
Cardiac, smooth and skeletal.
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Explain what skeletal tissue does.
It is found attached to the bones. You can control its contraction and relaxation. It sometimes contracts in response to reflexes.
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Explain what cardiac tissue does.
It is found only in the heart. It contracts at a steady rate to make the heartbeat and it's not under voluntary control.
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Explain what the smooth tissue does.
It is found in the walls of hollow organs such as, the stomach and bladder. It's not under voluntary control.
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What is sarcolemma?
A cell membrane of a striated muscle cell.
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What is myofibril?
A basic rod-shaped unit of muscle cell.
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What do myofibril fibres do?
They are made from proteins called myofilaments and they enable contractions to take place because of the contractile nature of the proteins in the filament.
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Which 2 protein filaments are found in muscle cells?
Actin and myosin. During muscle contraction, thin actin filaments move and overlap thick myosin filaments.
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What is the function of slow twitch muscles?
They use oxygen to generate energy in the form of ATP, for continuous and extended muscle contractions over a long time.
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Slow twitch fibres have...
...less sarcoplasmic reticulum, more mitochondria for sustained contraction, more myoglobin, a dense capillary network.
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What are fast twitch oxidative muscle fibres?
They contain many mitochondria, myoglobin and blood capillaries, but they can hydrolyse ATP much quicker
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What are fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres?
They have relatively less mitochondria, myoglobin and few capillaries. They contain a large concentration of glycogen which helps anaerobic respiration.
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What is the CNS?
Central Nervous System.
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What is nervous tissue?
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. Its made up of billions of non-myelinated nerve cells. myelinated axons and dendrons that carry nerve impulses. Nervous tissue is made up of neurons.
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What are neurons?
They are cells that receive impulses or action potentials across their membrane and pass them onto the next neuron. They consist of a large cell body called a soma with small projections called dendrites and an axon.
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How does information travel along neurons?
In the form of electrical signals called nerve impulses.
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What is resting potential?
The name given to a neuron that is not transmitting an action potential and is at rest, but the neuron is responding to Na and K ions.
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What is an action potential?
It is when a nerve impulse is generated from a receptor cell or another neuron, the neuron is always ready to conduct an impulse.
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What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate, this is an enzyme that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.
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What is a dendron?
An extension of a nerve cell.
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What is a prokaryot?

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A bacterial cell. It is a single-celled organism and has simple structures, it doesn't have a nucleus.

Card 3

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What is a eukaryot?

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Card 4

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What is an electron microscope?

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Card 5

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What are the two types of electron microscope?

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