OCR Biology - Mammalian Physiology and Behaviour; June 2009 Watch

hodgey90
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#401
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
No that's not quite right.
Classical Conditioning is one stimuli, like for Pavlov's dog experiment such as the food. You're thinking of Operant Conditioning by Skinner which is the two stimuli that act as re enforcers to create associative learning, where such as a rat learns to press a button for a reward and a button for a punishment, so the frequency of the one stimuli increases.
Habituation is the type of learning where an animal learns not to respond to a repeated harmful stimulus, such as in Operant Conditioning.
ok, classical conditioning has two stimuli. take pavlovs dog then, the stimuli of food itself leads to the response of salivating. the dog learns to associate the sound of a bell with food, so the stimulus of a bell leads to the salivation response.
so, two stimuli (food and a bell) now are associated with one response (salivation)

also, in operant conditioning you dont have the reward or punsihment at once, its one or the other i think
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LadySmythe
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Morning all, time for a morning of cramming me thinks.

Not looking forward to this
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Ciaran
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morniiiing. yup cramming starts now!!
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LadySmythe
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Anyone else ******** this exam????
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by epicist)
ossification is the gradual replacement of cartilage with bone. This happens shortly after birth because in the uterus, foetal skeleton is mainly cartilage.

I am completely ready to flop this tomorrow. I need to make notes on everything (after just about understanding the content) and maybe do 1 past paper. And then be ready to repeat this process for chemistry on thursday morning.
Thank god someone else who has chem tomorrow morning.
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Awesomnia
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This is the earliest I've been awake in weeeeks Good luck today everyone, I'm off to school where I can do more learnding!
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Ciaran
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any one know the exact funtion of the ganglion cell next to the rod cells? does it carry impulses to the brain about infomation on ...whether its light or dark..
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jacar3000
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I don't think we'll be questioned on the eye somehow because it's come up on the past few papers and this is the last year for our specification isn't it? That makes me think that they might put on things that haven't come up recently.
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nugiboy
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What topics should i learn for the exam?
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Ciaran
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(Original post by jacar3000)
I don't think we'll be questioned on the eye somehow because it's come up on the past few papers and this is the last year for our specification isn't it? That makes me think that they might put on things that haven't come up recently.
good shout good shout. yeh im thinking probably bones: osteoclasts, blasts ...
then maybe carbohydrate, protein or fat metabolism
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LadySmythe
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Does anyone have a good way of remembering all the enzymes used in digestion??

On a 5 min break, just been over it, and that (and the rumient stomach) are the only things I'm really wary on
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by nugiboy)
What topics should i learn for the exam?
As many as possible, mainly ones your not too confident on.
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Srood
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[QUOTE]Does anyone have a good way of remembering all the enzymes used in digestion??/QUOTE]
proteins the only hard!
carbs are: starch -> maltose (amylase) in mouth and duodenum
maltose-> glucose (maltase) mainly on membrane in ileum
fat is: lipids-> glycerol + fatty acids (lipase) in the stomach and the duodenum
Protein: starts with pepsin (breaks into peptides) then trypsin + chymotrypsin (breaks even smaller) and finally carboxypeptidase (breaks of end individual amino acids)
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Srood
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Ruminant digestion specialized for obtaining energy from cellulose:
• 4 Chambered stomach for storage of food
• Rumen → Reticulum → Omasum → Abomasum
• Rumen full of bacteria
• Bacteria produce cellulase (cellulose → glucose) in anaerobic conditions
(O2 usedby other microbes and absorbed into blood)
• Regurgitation / chewing the cud helps mechanical digestion
• Bacteria convert glucose → fatty acids which are used by ruminant
• Omasum squeezes out water
• Abomasum (like normal stomach): Bacteria are digested to provide protein
• Nitrogen recycled as urea from liver secreted in large volume of saliva
• Mutualistic relationship as both benefit: bacteria get carbohydrate and
urea, ruminant gets source of energy and protein


this is taken from some post on the first page of this thread! some really good notes in there !!
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Ciaran)
any one know the exact funtion of the ganglion cell next to the rod cells? does it carry impulses to the brain about infomation on ...whether its light or dark..
To transfer info to the brain via the optic nerve.
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by Srood)
Ruminant digestion specialized for obtaining energy from cellulose:
• 4 Chambered stomach for storage of food
• Rumen → Reticulum → Omasum → Abomasum
• Rumen full of bacteria
• Bacteria produce cellulase (cellulose → glucose) in anaerobic conditions
(O2 usedby other microbes and absorbed into blood)
• Regurgitation / chewing the cud helps mechanical digestion
• Bacteria convert glucose → fatty acids which are used by ruminant
• Omasum squeezes out water
• Abomasum (like normal stomach): Bacteria are digested to provide protein
• Nitrogen recycled as urea from liver secreted in large volume of saliva
• Mutualistic relationship as both benefit: bacteria get carbohydrate and
urea, ruminant gets source of energy and protein


this is taken from some post on the first page of this thread! some really good notes in there !!
Nick Snowdons notes, I've just revised from these
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by Srood)
proteins the only hard!
carbs are: starch -> maltose (amylase) in mouth and duodenum
maltose-> glucose (maltase) mainly on membrane in ileum
fat is: lipids-> glycerol + fatty acids (lipase) in the stomach and the duodenum
Protein: starts with pepsin (breaks into peptides) then trypsin + chymotrypsin (breaks even smaller) and finally carboxypeptidase (breaks of end individual amino acids)

Corrected quote

Thank you

Its just a matter of learning them i think

I have 2 hours left, and done 2 chapters so far...
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super'girl
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yeh i have been using those notes since last night :P
but im annoyed i didnt have enought time to do every past paper
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Loz17)
Does anyone have a good way of remembering all the enzymes used in digestion??

On a 5 min break, just been over it, and that (and the rumient stomach) are the only things I'm really wary on
Ok, well in the mouth it's always going to be salivary glands secreting Amylos to Maltose by Amylase. In the stomach you wouldn't have Amylose, but instead fatty acids to lipids (lipASE) and proteins to peptides (PEPsinogen). Those two are pretty straight forward, so it's the duodenum and ileum you should think of as having the most due to absorption being high. Think of the duodenum to have everything but mainly proteins; Amylose -> Maltose, Fatty acids and Glycerol -> Lipids, then all the proteins; proteins are turned to peptide bonds by either trypsinogen or chyrotrypsinogen which are both endopeptidases, then you have peptide bonds being further broken down to amino acids, and remember this as carboytrypsin. Remember the ileum to have mostly carbohydrate enzymes and the enzyme that converts them is similar to the product that is converted; maltose -> glucose (malTASE), sucrose to glucose and fructose (suCRASE) and lactose to glucose and galactose (lacTASE) and then you have an extra peptides converted to amino acids by peptidase.
Hope that helps
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by super'girl)
yeh i have been using those notes since last night :P
but im annoyed i didnt have enought time to do every past paper
:ditto:

Combination of other revision and lack of concentration towards the end :sad:
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