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    Unit 1 Sociology GCSE
    (Tell me if i get anything wrong)


    Research Methods

    1. Some one marker.
    2. Identify one research method from item B:
    participant observation
    3. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of that research method (participant observation):
    A: natural setting so less artificial
    B: observer effect, observer may become biased
    4. How may journalists approach studying lone mothers differently than sociologists?
    Journalists' work is quicker and less thorough than sociologists' work and is typically subject to opinionated reporting. Sociologists tend to be subject to peer review whereas journalists are confined only be the law. When studying lone mothers, sociologists may look at social consequences related to lone parenting such as the stigma attached to lone mothers, whereas journalists may look at only one side of the story and write a sensationalist story, shining a negative light on lone mothers.
    5. Explain what sociologists mean by Primary Socialisation:
    Socialisation is the process whereby we are taught to conform to the accepted norms and values in society. Primary Socialisation refers to socialisation which takes place in the early childhood and whereby we learn how to walk and talk in the accepted manner. Agents of primary socialisation such as the family teach us to conform using positive and negative sanctions such as rewarding us (giving pocket money or praise) for good behaviour and punishing (sending to room) for bad behaviour.
    6. How could governments use sociological research to study lone mothers?
    Governments could use questionnaires given to lone mothers in order to ascertain the various consequences and impacts of lone parenting. The results may show that lone mothers suffer financially due to a maximum of one income coming into the household. This would mean that governments could make policies that financially help lone mothers, or increase the benefits of existing ones such as child maintenance allowance.
    7. What is one secondary data source you would use and why?
    I would use official statistics, which are a large amount of information collected by government agencies. I would use these to compare my own research with the information recorded in the official statistics and look for trends. For example, I may look at how the situation of lone mothers has changed in the past 50 years. Official statistics would be useful as it would be masses of easily comparable qualitative data that I wouldn't have had to collect.
    8.What is one ethical issue you might consider and how can you overcome it?
    One ethical issue I would consider is informed consent whereby I explain the purposes and nature of my investigation and make it clear to the participants that they may refuse participation at any time in the investigation. I would do this by sending a letter to all the lone mothers participating and requesting it to be signed before participation. (I don't think I got four marks on that one, so if anyone could add anything, it would be great)
    9. What is one research method you would use and why would it be better than another research method?
    One research method I would use is unstructured interviews which are predominately carried out face to face and contain open ended questions. These would be useful to ascertain social consequences of lone motherhood. This would be better that structured interviews as these would generally generate qualitative data, which would show me how many lone mothers live in relative poverty but not the reasons behind it. Furthermore, unstructured interviews consist of open ended questions where the participant doesn't have to shooed from predetermined answers. This means that the answer they give will accurately depict their situation and may be an answer I had not thought of.

    Families

    1. some one marker
    2. some one marker
    3. ??? what was the two marker???
    4. Explain what sociologists mean by family diversity:
    A family typically consists of a couple with their dependent child or children. However, some sociologists argue that there is no longer a typical family, and instead there's a variety of families. Family diversity suggests that there is not one type of family and many others exist such as lone parent families, same sex families, reconstituted families etc. This diversity has come about due to a change in social attitudes, for example towards homosexuality or divorce. (I don't think this is four marks worth )
    5. Describe one way in which the extended family can benefit other members of the family and explain how this helps them:
    One way in which the extended family's can help members of the family is by providing free babysitting and looking after a child while both parents work.
    This helps members of the family as the increasing cost of childcare, rising to over £230,000 to raise a child up to age 21, more dual earner families exist, meaning that there is no parent at home to look after the child. Therefore grandparents can be relied on for free babysitting, meaning that the family can save money on nannies and use it on something else which is beneficial for the child.
    6. Describe one trend in same sex families and explain why this trend has occurred:
    There has been an increase in same sex families, which consist of a same sex couple living together with or without dependent children. Their relationship may be recognised by the law in the form of a marriage.
    This trend has occurred due to changing social attitudes towards homosexuality as there is now less stigma attached to openly homosexual people, meaning that less people are deterred from being openly homosexual, so more people 'come out', including many elebriyies. This means that more homosexual people form relationships, leading to a rise in same sex families. (I don't know if I wrote enough for five marks, so any advice and additions are welcome )
    7. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the extended family is still important:
    (I won't write out the whole essay, I'll just outline the main points I put)
    Intro: Define Extended Family. Identify the points for and against.
    For (extended family is important) : free babysitting, financial assistance
    Against (extended family not important) : geographical mobility, friends are the new family
    Conclusion: The extended family is still imprtant, although the nature of their role within the family has changed.

    Education

    1. Some one marker
    2. Some one marker Ans: Judges
    3. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of testing in primary schools:
    A: promotes competition, D: stress, may label children as 'failures'
    4. Explain what sociologists mean by an anti school subculture:
    A subculture refers to a group of people, who hold the same norms and values. An anti school subculture refers to a group that rejects the norms and values of their school. They may therefore value talking back to teachers and skipping school, and reject trying hard in class and getting good grades. An anti school subculture may encourage their members to comply by using negative and positive sanctions, for example by giving status in the group for accepted behaviour, and exclusion from the group for behaviour that goes against their norms and values. Anti school subcultures frequently form as a result of streaming in school, whereby pupils from lower streams believe that they are 'failures' so do not try to succeed at school, forming an anti school subculture.
    5. ??? was it a 5 marker on gender differences???
    6. Describe one way in which the school prepares children for the workplace and explain how effective this is:
    One way in which the school prepares children for the workplace is through performing the economic role, whereby, through subjects such as Maths and English and vocational subjects such as Hair and Beauty, schools teach us to take up our place in society based o our skills.
    However, some sociologists such as Marxists believe that this system doesn't give everyone an equal chance at succeeding in the workplace, as working class pupils tend to be geared towards vocational subjects and therefore are taught to take up their place in low paying jobs, whereas middle class pupils are encouraged to go for high paying professions, for example in medicine and law. Therefore the school may not be effective in preparing holden for the workplace.
    (I don't think this is right^ I think that really we were meant to talk about the hidden curriculum:/ Please tell me how many marks you think this would get??)
    7. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that parental values are the most significant reason for differences in educational attainment:
    Introduction: Lower classes tend to underperform. Some sociologists believe that this is due to parental values. Outline points against.
    For (Parental Values) : Parental values mean working class children aim for lower paid jobs just like their parents, whereas middle class aim for deferred gratification.
    Against : Home income, Labelling- Self fulfilling prophecy
    Conclusion : Parental values does have an impact but is not the most important as other factors play a big role too.



    Unit 2
    (I did Crime, Mass Media and Power. If anyone did Social Inequality, feel free to post)

    Crime and Deviance

    1. some one marker
    2. some one marker
    3. ??? what was the two marker???
    4. Explain what sociologists mean by Antisocial Behaviour
    Antisocial Behaviour refers to actions and attitudes that go against society's norms and values and are viewed as deviant. For example, someone loitering menacingly make others uncomfortable and scared. Antisocial behaviour is most frequently found among young people as they are most likely to go through a period of drive, whereby they reject the accepted norms. Governments have unsuccessfully tried to reduce Antisocial Behaviour by introducing ASBOs. (I don't know if I wrote enough for four marks )
    5. Describe one way in which governments have tried to reduce antisocial behaviour and explain how successful this has been.
    One way in which governments have tried to reduce antisocial behaviour is with the introduction of ASBOs, which restrict access to certain areas and at certain times for the offender.
    This has not been successful as many subcultures saw ASBOs as a 'badge of honour' and encouraged their members to receive them through peer pressure. Therefore, the levels of antisocial behaviour among young people rose instead of decreasing. Lastly, many of those who received ASBOs went on to reoffend or be sentenced for more serious crimes.
    6. Describe one trend that occurs between poverty and crime and explain why governments may try to remove this link
    One trend that occurs between poverty and crime is that people living in relative deprivation are more likely to commit a crime. This could be due to the desire of material goods but inability to obtain them through legal methods, therefore turning to crime.
    Governments may try to remove this link by encourage people to install CCTVs and burglar alarms in their homes and also by introducing policies to help people escape relative poverty. They may do this to prevent stereotyping, for example by the police, of people of lower socio-economic backgrounds as 'delinquent'. This would lead to deviancy amplification in the official statistics as the police is more likely to stop and search lower class people, causing a moral panic. (I don't know if thats right I kind of panicked and rambled )
    7. ??? what were the essay questions???

    Mass Media

    1. some one marker
    2. some one marker
    3. ??? can't remember the two marker???
    4. Explain what sociologists mean by Agenda Setting
    The conflict approach argues that the media owners and journalists set the agenda by deciding what content the audience views. This is achieved as the media owners act as 'gatekeepers' by 'opening the gate' to the stories they want the viewer to see, and 'closing the gate' to others. This can be important in shaping our views as the mass media is becoming increasingly significant in the process of socialisation. Marxists argue that this means that the elite in our society can control what we think about certain matters or social groups in society by setting the agenda.
    5. Describe one way in which violence in the media can lead to violence in real life and explain why some sociologists disagree (I can't remember if that really was the explain part? )
    One way in which violence in the media can lead to violence in real life is through the hypodermic syringe theorem which sees the audience as the 'patient', passively accepting the content of the media that is 'injected'.
    Some sociologists disagree with this approach as they believe that viewers don't passively accept everything that we are shown. The pluralist approach suggests that a range of views exist in society and that different people decode and interpret the content of the media in different ways. This suggests that there is not one message in the media, so different people may interpret violence in the media in different ways. Therefore, violence in the media cannot be a direct cause of violence in real life.
    6. ???what was the other 5 marker???
    7. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media is the most significant agency of socialisation
    Intro: Explain what an agency of socialisation is. Some sociologists believe that the mass media is the most significant agency, whereas others believe that the mass media does not shape our views in society and other agencies are more significant.
    For (most important) : Hypodermic syringe- directly teaches us correct behaviour, substitute hearth
    Against (not important) : criticisms of hypodermic syringe, decoding approach, other agencies of socialisation
    Conclusion: Despite the mass media's increasing influence in our daily lives, it is not the most important agency of socialisation.

    Power

    1. some one marker
    2. some one marker
    3. Identify two features of a representative democracy
    Everyone (over 18) has a right to vote, freedom of speech
    4. Explain what sociologists mean by Patriarchy
    A Patriarchal society is whereby men dominate every aspect of social life: the home, the workplace etc. Feminists believe that we live in such a society. For example, in the home, men have advantages as they are classed as the 'breadwinner' and are more financially independent and have the most say in important decisions. In the workplace, discrimination exists as women are less likely to be offered the high paying jobs. In 2012, there were more CEOs named John than the total number of women CEOs.
    5. Describe one way in which governments have tried to increase the power of women and explain how successful it was
    One way in which governments have tried to give women more power is by introducing women only shortlists under Blair's Government, in order to get ore women involved in the political process and therefore make Parliament more representative.
    This has been successful as it had increased the number of women MPs, however it has not been wholly successful as only 20% of the MPs are women, yet 52% of the population are female. Furthermore, the women MPs were belittled and labelled 'Blair's Babes', discouraging women from participating in politics.
    6. Describe one reason why women may be dependent on the welfare state and explain why this situation persists
    One reason why women may be dependent on the welfare state is the increase in lone parent families, which are typically headed by a woman. Lone parent families are typically less financially secure as they have a maximum of one income to support the family.
    This situation persists due to the increasing cost of raising a child, which is now over £230,000 to raise a child up to age 21. This means that lone mothers struggle to look after their children. Many lone mothers can't work because they need to be home to look after the child. Therefore, they depend on the welfare state to provide benefits such as the child maintenance allowance to be able to buy necessities for the child. Furthermore, women are still discriminated against at work and are less likely to be offered a well paying job, therefore women are generally less financially secure, especially if part of a lone parent family, leaving them dependent on the welfare state.
    7. Discuss how far sociologists agree that power is in the hands of men in our society
    Intro: In the 1950s, men had the most power in society and dominated every aspect of social life: the home, the workplace etc. Some sociologists believe this has changed, however others believe that men still hold the most power.
    For (men have power) : Segregated conjugal roles, stereotyping in the media.
    Against (equal power) : Dual earner families, more women reaching high professional positions.
    Conclusion: In conclusion, power between men and women has become more equal, however men still hold the most power.
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    Number 5 definition question was primary socialisation
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    Education
    1. 1 marker tick box
    2. The answer was judges
    3. Advantage and disadvantage of testing in primary schools
    4. Anti- school subculture
    5. ???
    6.???
    7. 12 markers, discuss how far sociologists would agree that social class affects a child's educational achievement.

    Also in the family section you missed out family diversity
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    (Original post by tanisha04)
    Number 5 definition question was primary socialisation
    I thought that the Primary Socialisation question was in families? xx
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    (Original post by Queenie123)
    I thought that the Primary Socialisation question was in families? xx
    Oh sorry, I'm wrong never mind xx
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    (Original post by tanisha04)
    Education
    1. 1 marker tick box
    2. The answer was judges
    3. Advantage and disadvantage of testing in primary schools
    4. Anti- school subculture
    5. ???
    6.???
    7. 12 markers, discuss how far sociologists would agree that social class affects a child's educational achievement.

    Also in the family section you missed out family diversity
    Thank you x But wasn't the essay question about parental values?? I may be wrong
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    (Original post by Queenie123)
    Thank you x But wasn't the essay question about parental values?? I may be wrong
    Yes it may have been i really can't remember i just remember talkin about culture capital.
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    Ive added Unit 2 x
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    Sorry but ATTITUDES of the mothers ??? Official statistics ? Doesn't link to the study
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    2 marker for crime was identify 2 ways police collect crimes ?
    Victim surveys
    Official statistics
    Self report stufues
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    For the same sex families it was recent years by this they mean the civil partnership act 2005
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    Marxists conflict theory argue that the stress and importance of obeying a teacher and hard work for exams reflects the setting in the worlplace under a boss so this only benefits the powerful (bougeoise) not the proletariat this could lead to higher productivity in the means of production for the bourgeoise and therefore could even mean inevitable profits making the development gap much larger and the chance of resoulotion for the proletariat to be reconciliatory from exploitation weaker as they have been socialised to show discipline and obey their boss
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    U could mention feral children in primary socialisation
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    Remarriage and divorce 2 marks
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    Editors 1 marker ?
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    Hey, i have my sociology mock paper 2 2017 tomorrow, Does anyone remember the 5 markers for Mass Media??? Or the 12 markers for crime??
 
 
 
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