SarcAndSpark
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Hi!

So, biology paper 2 is coming up, and it can be hard to know where to focus your revision. I've made a list of all the things you need to know within the 4 topics on paper 2. Bold is higher tier only. Italics is triple only- which I haven't split into foundation and higher. I think I've got everything correct for AQA, but if you spot any mistakes, then do let me know.

I'd suggest going through this list and rating yourself red/amber/green on each topic. At this stage, I'd focus as much as possible on bringing the amber topics up to green- this will probably help you gain the most marks!

I'm happy to answer any questions you might have about about the list or specific topics!


Homeostasis & Response

Define homeostasis and explain why it is important

Give examples of conditions that are maintained in the body

Name the different types of receptor humans have and describe how they react to a stimulus

Know what the words receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurone, effector and synapse refer to and use them to describe a response

Describe how nerve impulses travel and how they cross the synapse

Explain what a reflex is and be able to label a diagram of a reflex arc

Describe how the parts of the nervous system are adapted for their function

Explain the importance of reflexes

Describe a method to test reaction time, identifying variables and processing data obtained

Describe the functions of the cortex, cerebellum and medulla and label these on a diagram of the brain

Explain some of the difficulties involved in studying brain function and treating brain disease

Label the parts of the eye and describe their functions

Describe how the eye adapts to focus on near and far objects

Describe common defects of the sight and how they are corrected (short sightedness and long sightedness)

Explain how body temperature is monitored and controlled, including vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Describe the structure and function of the endocrine system, identifying major endocrine glands in the human body

Describe what a hormone is and explain the main differences between hormonal and nervous responses

Describe how blood sugar varies and is normally controlled by insulin

Describe the role of glucagon in maintaining blood sugar levels, including negative feedback

Describe and compare Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in terms of problems in the control of sugar and treatments

Describe how the kidneys work to produce urine and reabsorb all sugar and the right quantities of ions & water

Explain the role of the brain and pituitary gland in maintaining water levels of the body

Describe and evaluate treatment for kidney failure – dialysis and kidney transplants

Name and describe the effects of the hormones involved in controlling the female menstrual cycle

Describe the interaction of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle and interpret graphs of hormone levels

Describe and evaluate forms of contraception (pill, injection, condom, IUD, spermidical agents, sterilisation, diaphragm etc)

Describe the use of fertility treatments & IVF and evaluate them in terms of cost, ethics, medical/health, success rates, stress on the parents,

Define negative feedback

Describe the roles of adrenaline and thryroxine in the body and explain how thyroxine levels are controlled by negative feedback

Explain how auxins control plant growth and explain ways of investigating factors affecting plant growth

Describe commercial uses of auxins, gibberelins and ethene



Inheritance, Variation & Evolution

Explain what is meant by the terms ‘sexual’ and ‘asexual’ reproduction and the differences between them. Give advantages and disadvantages of each.

Describe the main stages of the production of gametes by meiosis

Explain the differences between mitosis and meiosis in terms of daughter cells

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction.

Define the term genome, gene and chromosome.

Describe in detail the structure of DNA

Explain how DNA codes for proteins

Describe a simple model of protein synthesis and folding to produce unique shapes

Define mutations and describe how they may affect the protein made

Describe the importance of understanding the genome

Define key genetic terms – allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, genotype and phenotype

Complete punnett squares to show the possibilities for offspring of a genetic cross and interpret them using direct proportion and ratios

Describe the chromosome make up of men and women and use genetic crosses to show how gender is inherited

Use and interpret family tree diagrams

Construct genetic diagrams and use theory of probability to interpret results

Describe the inheritance of the diseases polydactyly and cystic fibrosis

Evaluate the use of embryo screening to prevent these and other inherited diseases

Describe the work of Mendel and interpret data about his results

Explain why Darwin’s theory of natural selection was not well accepted at first and contrast his theory with that of Lamarck

Define the reasons for variation within a species and across species

Explain the role of mutations in variation

Describe the theory of evolution

Apply the theory of natural selection to explain how organisms have changed over time

Explain how different species arise over time

Describe the work of Wallace in developing our understanding of evolution by natural selection

Describe ‘selective breeding’ and give examples of where it is used

Give the disadvantages of selective breeding in terms of the gene pool

Describe how plants, animals and bacteria can be genetically engineered and evaluate this – e.g +/- of genetically modified foods, production of insulin by GM bacteria

Describe the main steps in genetic engineering of crops and bacteria

Describe the processes involved in cloning techniques – tissue culture, cuttings, embryo transplantation and adult cell cloning.

Describe the evidence for evolution – fossils, antibiotic resistant bacteria etc

Explain what fossils show, how they were formed and why the fossil record is incomplete

Interpret evolutionary trees and explain why organisms may go extinct

Explain how antibiotic resistant bacteria form and how we can try to prevent this

Describe Linnaeus’ classification system

Describe the more recent ‘three-domain’ system



Ecology

Describe and explain adaptations for animals and plants – especially ones that live in extreme conditions – deserts, poles etc

Explain what ‘extremophiles’ are and give examples

Define biotic and abiotic factors and explain how they can affect the organisms in a community

Describe the flow of energy through food chains

Describe trophic levels and represent them using pyramids of biomass

Calculate the efficiency of energy transfer within a food chain

Explain and evaluate ways of improving the efficiency of energy transfers in food production

Describe some uses of biotechnology – GM crops, production of insulin by GM bacteria, quorn

Describe methods of determining abundance of organisms within a habitat – using quadrats.

Name the processes involved in the cycling of carbon and water and describe the importance of this

Describe the importance of decay and factors that affect the rate of decay

Describe practical ways of investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of decay

Suggest how environmental changes can impact an ecosystem.

Explain what is meant by biodiversity.

Explain how poor waste management and pollution can impact biodiversity.

Explain how different types of land use and deforestation can impact biodiversity.

Evaluate different methods for maintaining and restoring biodiversity.

Describe trophic levels in an ecosystem.

Construct and interpret pyramids of biomass.

Explain how biomass is transferred between trophic levels.

Describe some of the biological factors which affect food security.

Describe the role of farming techniques, sustainable fisheries and biotechnology in maintaining food security.
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username3602024
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this is so good thanks so much

do you have anything like this for the other sciences?
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
this is so good thanks so much

do you have anything like this for the other sciences?
Hi

I don't have anything like this for the other sciences at the moment.

However, if you search something like "Chemistry RAG sheet" or "Physics Tick List" plus your exam board, you'll hopefully be able to find something useful!
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username3602024
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hiya i dunno if im just dumb but i searched it up and i literally cant find anything

do you have any specific websites?
(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
Hi

I don't have anything like this for the other sciences at the moment.

However, if you search something like "Chemistry RAG sheet" or "Physics Tick List" plus your exam board, you'll hopefully be able to find something useful!
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SarcAndSpark
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There's some good examples here:
http://www.fairfield.bristol.sch.uk/page/?pid=126

There's another one for combined chemistry here:
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resourc...ilogy-11402071

There's one for physics here too:
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resourc...-spec-11812381

I hope this helps a bit. You can also go straight to the spec on the exam board website.
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Aryan3031
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is this an exhaustive list?
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by Aryan3031)
is this an exhaustive list?
It depends what you mean by exhaustive. I've aimed to include at least one point addressing every part of the spec, but I haven't covered all the detail on the spec- for example, I haven't listed specific examples you need to know in some cases.

This is list is most focused on AQA, but at GCSE, the exam boards don't vary that much.

For a completely exhaustive list, you should check the spec.

Combined AQA is available here:
https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/scie...e-trilogy-8464

Triple AQA can be found here:
https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/scie...e/biology-8461

Or you can google for other exam boards.

This is mostly aimed to be a tool to help people focus their revision. If you've learned something not on this list, it's very likely to be useful- if there's a large part of this list you think you haven't been taught for the relevant paper, then you may be in trouble!

ETA: obviously both papers also test key working scientifically skills and mathematical skills as well, which this list doesn't include.
Last edited by SarcAndSpark; 1 year ago
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GraceLillyAnn16
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Thanks for this!
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by GraceLillyAnn16)
Thanks for this!
No worries, glad it's useful
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Aryan3031
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ok
(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
It depends what you mean by exhaustive. I've aimed to include at least one point addressing every part of the spec, but I haven't covered all the detail on the spec- for example, I haven't listed specific examples you need to know in some cases.

This is list is most focused on AQA, but at GCSE, the exam boards don't vary that much.

For a completely exhaustive list, you should check the spec.

Combined AQA is available here:
https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/scie...e-trilogy-8464

Triple AQA can be found here:
https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/scie...e/biology-8461

Or you can google for other exam boards.

This is mostly aimed to be a tool to help people focus their revision. If you've learned something not on this list, it's very likely to be useful- if there's a large part of this list you think you haven't been taught for the relevant paper, then you may be in trouble!

ETA: obviously both papers also test key working scientifically skills and mathematical skills as well, which this list doesn't include.
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finks
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wow! thanks so much! so useful!!
(Original post by Aryan3031)
ok
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RIP_MR.STARK
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I’m doing the edexcel board but this is great help anyway! Thanks a lot
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Bubbles0077
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Thank youuuu😍
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KhadijaV123
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thank you 🙃😍
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mauryasid67
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(Original post by Aryan3031)
ok
Thanks for your help
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SarcAndSpark
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Glad people are finding this useful
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Anais2803
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(Original post by SarcAndSpark)
Hi!

So, biology paper 2 is coming up, and it can be hard to know where to focus your revision. I've made a list of all the things you need to know within the 4 topics on paper 2. Bold is higher tier only. Italics is triple only- which I haven't split into foundation and higher. I think I've got everything correct for AQA, but if you spot any mistakes, then do let me know.

I'd suggest going through this list and rating yourself red/amber/green on each topic. At this stage, I'd focus as much as possible on bringing the amber topics up to green- this will probably help you gain the most marks!

I'm happy to answer any questions you might have about about the list or specific topics!


Homeostasis & Response

Define homeostasis and explain why it is important

Give examples of conditions that are maintained in the body

Name the different types of receptor humans have and describe how they react to a stimulus

Know what the words receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurone, effector and synapse refer to and use them to describe a response

Describe how nerve impulses travel and how they cross the synapse

Explain what a reflex is and be able to label a diagram of a reflex arc

Describe how the parts of the nervous system are adapted for their function

Explain the importance of reflexes

Describe a method to test reaction time, identifying variables and processing data obtained

Describe the functions of the cortex, cerebellum and medulla and label these on a diagram of the brain

Explain some of the difficulties involved in studying brain function and treating brain disease

Label the parts of the eye and describe their functions

Describe how the eye adapts to focus on near and far objects

Describe common defects of the sight and how they are corrected (short sightedness and long sightedness)

Explain how body temperature is monitored and controlled, including vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Describe the structure and function of the endocrine system, identifying major endocrine glands in the human body

Describe what a hormone is and explain the main differences between hormonal and nervous responses

Describe how blood sugar varies and is normally controlled by insulin

Describe the role of glucagon in maintaining blood sugar levels, including negative feedback

Describe and compare Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in terms of problems in the control of sugar and treatments

Describe how the kidneys work to produce urine and reabsorb all sugar and the right quantities of ions & water

Explain the role of the brain and pituitary gland in maintaining water levels of the body

Describe and evaluate treatment for kidney failure – dialysis and kidney transplants

Name and describe the effects of the hormones involved in controlling the female menstrual cycle

Describe the interaction of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle and interpret graphs of hormone levels

Describe and evaluate forms of contraception (pill, injection, condom, IUD, spermidical agents, sterilisation, diaphragm etc)

Describe the use of fertility treatments & IVF and evaluate them in terms of cost, ethics, medical/health, success rates, stress on the parents,

Define negative feedback

Describe the roles of adrenaline and thryroxine in the body and explain how thyroxine levels are controlled by negative feedback

Explain how auxins control plant growth and explain ways of investigating factors affecting plant growth

Describe commercial uses of auxins, gibberelins and ethene



Inheritance, Variation & Evolution

Explain what is meant by the terms ‘sexual’ and ‘asexual’ reproduction and the differences between them. Give advantages and disadvantages of each.

Describe the main stages of the production of gametes by meiosis

Explain the differences between mitosis and meiosis in terms of daughter cells

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction.

Define the term genome, gene and chromosome.

Describe in detail the structure of DNA

Explain how DNA codes for proteins

Describe a simple model of protein synthesis and folding to produce unique shapes

Define mutations and describe how they may affect the protein made

Describe the importance of understanding the genome

Define key genetic terms – allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, genotype and phenotype

Complete punnett squares to show the possibilities for offspring of a genetic cross and interpret them using direct proportion and ratios

Describe the chromosome make up of men and women and use genetic crosses to show how gender is inherited

Use and interpret family tree diagrams

Construct genetic diagrams and use theory of probability to interpret results

Describe the inheritance of the diseases polydactyly and cystic fibrosis

Evaluate the use of embryo screening to prevent these and other inherited diseases

Describe the work of Mendel and interpret data about his results

Explain why Darwin’s theory of natural selection was not well accepted at first and contrast his theory with that of Lamarck

Define the reasons for variation within a species and across species

Explain the role of mutations in variation

Describe the theory of evolution

Apply the theory of natural selection to explain how organisms have changed over time

Explain how different species arise over time

Describe the work of Wallace in developing our understanding of evolution by natural selection

Describe ‘selective breeding’ and give examples of where it is used

Give the disadvantages of selective breeding in terms of the gene pool

Describe how plants, animals and bacteria can be genetically engineered and evaluate this – e.g +/- of genetically modified foods, production of insulin by GM bacteria

Describe the main steps in genetic engineering of crops and bacteria

Describe the processes involved in cloning techniques – tissue culture, cuttings, embryo transplantation and adult cell cloning.

Describe the evidence for evolution – fossils, antibiotic resistant bacteria etc

Explain what fossils show, how they were formed and why the fossil record is incomplete

Interpret evolutionary trees and explain why organisms may go extinct

Explain how antibiotic resistant bacteria form and how we can try to prevent this

Describe Linnaeus’ classification system

Describe the more recent ‘three-domain’ system



Ecology

Describe and explain adaptations for animals and plants – especially ones that live in extreme conditions – deserts, poles etc

Explain what ‘extremophiles’ are and give examples

Define biotic and abiotic factors and explain how they can affect the organisms in a community

Describe the flow of energy through food chains

Describe trophic levels and represent them using pyramids of biomass

Calculate the efficiency of energy transfer within a food chain

Explain and evaluate ways of improving the efficiency of energy transfers in food production

Describe some uses of biotechnology – GM crops, production of insulin by GM bacteria, quorn

Describe methods of determining abundance of organisms within a habitat – using quadrats.

Name the processes involved in the cycling of carbon and water and describe the importance of this

Describe the importance of decay and factors that affect the rate of decay

Describe practical ways of investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of decay

Suggest how environmental changes can impact an ecosystem.

Explain what is meant by biodiversity.

Explain how poor waste management and pollution can impact biodiversity.

Explain how different types of land use and deforestation can impact biodiversity.

Evaluate different methods for maintaining and restoring biodiversity.

Describe trophic levels in an ecosystem.

Construct and interpret pyramids of biomass.

Explain how biomass is transferred between trophic levels.

Describe some of the biological factors which affect food security.

Describe the role of farming techniques, sustainable fisheries and biotechnology in maintaining food security.
really helpful is there any answers or a mark scheme
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SarcAndSpark
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(Original post by Anais2803)
really helpful is there any answers or a mark scheme
Obviously I don't have a mark scheme to a paper that hasn't been sat yet. However, you can find past papers and mark schemes on exam board websites.
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Its_Khadeejaxx
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OMG this is amazing... thankkkkks
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Mariam.K
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These are my predictions of what could come up for triple only:
-Brain
-adaptation in plants/animals
-kidneys
-evolution by natural selection
-water cycle
-fossils and extinction
-rate of decomposition
-adult cell cloning
-DNA structure and protein synthesis
-the eye
-practical:effect of temp on rate of decay of fresh milk
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