The Student Room Group

my eng literature notes (grade 7/8) (gsce 2022)

hey guys im leaving my eng lit notes here for if u want to get a grade 7-8. I was one mark off an 8, i dont care enough to get it remarked LMAO but hopefully this can help yr 11's 😁


MACBETH
themes:
ambition
supernatural
fate
violence
morality

intro act1: the witches meet macbeth and their first prophecies are made.

rising action act2: macbeth kills king duncan, macbeth is controlled by lady macbeth.

climax act3: macbeth is king, banquo is murdered, fleance escapes, macduff and malcolm go to england.

falling action act4: macbeth goes to witches, macduff family is murdered, malcolm and macduff plan invasion (turn grief into anger)

catastrophe act5: Malcolm and macduff invade Scotland, Malcolm becomes king, lady macbeth and macbeth die.

ambition
social context: The king is closer to God than anyone else in society, and he was chosen by god. Thus, obeying the king was more than a national duty, it became a religious duty. Shakespeare may have been likely to display Lady Macbeth as ambitious and raging, a masculine trait, to make the readers at that time understand the impact that a change in the order of natural being had on the divine right of kings, as she became an illegitimate queen.

supernatural
social context:
many people in elizabethan times believed in the presence of the supernatural and blamed illnesses or unexplained deaths on it. perhaps shakespeare portrays the supernatural in a negative light to emphasise its true viciousness and fit with what society thought about it. "fair is foul foul is fair" "fenny snake" engaging in the supernatural led to a distortion in the divine rights of kings.

guilt
social context:
the natural chain of being made it easy for lady Macbeth to feel guilty about killing King Duncan as her enthronement was illegitimate as she was not an heir/not chosen by god/unnatural queen. this is shown when lady Macbeth drastically suffers from hallucinations. Macbeth felt no guilt in terms of not being able securing his throne at first but later is overtaken by guilt and commits immoral acts, turns to the supernatural instead of turning to God for forgiveness- Shakespeare reminds the audience that regicide is an unforgivable sin, and Macbeth was aware of this. LM convinces him his virtue is too full of ("human kindness")

appearance/reality
shakespeare successfully conveyed the idea of deception through displaying it as a way of life for the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
social context:
In terms of context, readers in Elizabethan era related to this as they had to hide their social, religious and overall views about the monarchy to not get executed or land in danger. "be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide"

fate
social context:
shakespeare successfully conveys the idea of fate through displaying it as something that can be distorted and used for justification to commit immoral acts. In terms of context, the natural chain of being usually justified if the king went against any rule as he was closest to God, giving him the opportunity to commit any act. "if ill" "why..earnest of success"

masculinity/femininity:
Shakespeare successfully conveys the idea that a distortion in Elizabethan societal roles, or the natural chain of being, can create people without self-control or rationality.

quotations:

macbeth: "unseamd from the nave to the chaps" "false face must hide" "we will proceed no further"
lady macbeth: "was the hope drunk" "pluckd my nipple" "take my milk for gall"
banquo: "restrain me from these cursed thoughts" "my noble partner"
king duncan: "his virtue will plead like angels"
"so meek" "brave macbeth"
macduff: "all my pretty ones" "tyrant" "show thy face"






"macbeth does murder sleep"- guilt
"false face must hide"- guilt
"we will proceed no further"-guilt

"take my milk for gall"- ambition
"when u durst to do it, then u were a man"- ambition
"unsex me here"-ambition
"restrain me in the cursed thoughts"-ambition
"false face must hide.."-ambition
"dashd the brains out"-ambition
"pluckd my nipple"-ambition
"as hounds and greyhounds" - ambition

"his virtue will plead like angels"-power
"so meek" - power
"all my pretty ones?"-power

"that which u are my thoughts cannot transpose" - loyalty
"brave macbeth" -loyalty
"loyalty i owe"-loyalty
"Your patience so predominant in your nature" -loyalty

language analysis

Ambition: thesis
Shakespeare presents ambition as something that can overtake and blind you to morality.

Shakespeare develops this idea through Macbeth, by displaying how his high ambition caused him to lose control and endlessly kill people.

Shakespeare employs this idea through Lady Macbeth, by showing how her ambition to become queen caused her to turn to the supernatural (this was seen as a major issue as it was seen as a sin to engage in the supernatural/unnatural during Shakespearean time).
Ambition also caused her to commit suicide after endlessly lying and repressing her worries about King Duncans murder- it drove her insane.

Key scenes for Ambition:
" take my milk for gall" if u were under the influence of yellow bile you would become violent resentful raging spiteful ambitious.
Macbeth Act 1.
"To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus" - Macbeth
Macbeth finds being king meaningless if he cannot be king without being safe. Giving into his ambition has not given him peace whatsoever. He feels even more anxious and paranoid. (guilt)



Supernatural:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the supernatural through a range of characters that have had a tremendous effect on the protagonists Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
key characters:
(the witches, banquos ghost, dagger, Macbeth/lady Macbeth's downfall)

key scenes for supernatural:
"is this a dagger i see before me?" act 2
"fair is foul foul is fair" act 1 scene 1
"thy gory locks at me" (act 3)
"take my milk for gall"
*thunder and lightning* act 1 scene 1

is this a dagger i see before me?--
Macbeth is finally convinced to kill King Duncan after hallucinating a dagger, floating and covered in blood. The supernatural convinced him to reach his ultimate decision after contemplating the murder. This is because the hallucination was the final thing that drove Macbeth to committing the murder as it is the last thing he sees before killing the king.
*thunder and lightning* (stage directions) are highly effective. It sets the atmosphere and foreshadows the tragedies within this play that are about to be chaotic and significant just like the weather. The supernatural is shown to be powerful as they impact the weather of the play, signifying that they will also impact the characters.





fate:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the theme of fate through a range of characters who all lead different lives - causing them to have different fates. Shakespeare reveals how their fates are disturbed by the supernatural and ones who choose to engage with it, but also those who decide to distort the divine rights of kings.

characters used: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, banquo, king duncan



Macbeth: "To be thus is nothing,
But to be safely thus" "Know Banquo was your enemy"
Macbeth is willing to change his fate and distort God's will in order to claim his throne. He thinks its useless to let fate (banquo/ children having a claim to the throne) exist and feels an urge to change it. He continuously changes his fate but now also the divive rights of kings by attempting to murder the heirs. He even tries to manipulate "the murderers" into thinking that Banquo was the Kings enemy, therefore they would undoubtely obey the kings commands. However macbeth fails to kill the heir Fleance, showing how macbeth is not powerful enough as his power to change fate is limited - he can only take away life but he cannot change gods will.


Lady Macbeth: "fate and metaphysical aid..(seem to want u to have the crown)"
Lady macbeth justifies her immoral actions by stating that fate and "metaphysical" (supernatural) want him to have the crown. She truly believes that the supernatural provide them with true prophecies and are linked to his faith. She associates it with fate, revealing that she uses it as a guide and something she confides in.


King Duncan: "rejoicing" "greatness" // After macbeth gets the prophecies, he tells his wife that he wants to be "rejoicing"/ celebrating the announcement of his claim to the throne and claims it is "greatness". This contrasts to his further view on the king he called "so meek", which showed that he did not fear the king or his position, and perhaps even thought that he could be a greater king.


morality
thesis: Shakespeare presents does theme of morality through showing how a lack of morality creates a distortion in society as christian values are not being met, therefore this leads to a disruption in the natural order of being/divine rights of kings which structure society.

quotes: "so meek" "we have scorched the snake not killed it" "be the innocent flower but be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide" "dashd the brains out"

AN INSPECTOR CALLS

an inspector calls
themes:
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] older vs younger generation
- [x] social responsibility
- [x] - [x] gender
- [x] - [x] - [x] class



STRUCTURE OF AN INSPECTOR CALLS
- simple narrative structure
- beginning, complex plot, climax, end
- sequences of revelations - how everyone affected eva smith & their secrets
- play continues in the same place, has one main aim, play ends in less than 24 hrs
- highly realistic (therefore engaging)
- ends with Priestly's main message in the play- social responsibility.

act 1 : engagement party, inspector arrives, Birling & sheila questioned
act 2: gerald and Mrs birling questioned
act 3. eric questioned, Inspector final speech, false identity and final end.
each act ends with the inspector

act1: sheila mocks Gerald for thinking he can deceive the inspector by lying. Inspector enters with "well?"
act2: inspector holds up a hand to stop sheila and mrs birling argument about eric's possible involvement in the Eva Smith case.
act3: ends with a cyclical structure (in the same place with everyone in the room as the inspector leaves)

the play ends on a cliffhanger - signifying the chaos and turmoil that is about to enter.
the readers are more likely to discuss the ending- which also means that they will talk about the play as a whole and its idea throughout the whole play.




quotations:


"we're respectable citizens not criminals" - class (gerald)
"you couldnt have done anything else" - (gerald)
"shed lived very economically on what id allowed her" - gender/responsibility (gerald)
"everything's alright now sheila what about this ring"

"hes giving us the rope"- social responsibility (sheila)
"now i feel really engaged" - class (sheila)
"very pleased with life" - class (sheila)
"it was my own fault" - class (sheila)
"it frightens me the way u talk"
"You mustn’t try to build up a wall between us and that girl"


"she was giving herself ridiculous airs" - class (mrs birling)
"i was perfectly justified" - social responsibility (mrs birling)
"a rather cold woman" - (mrs birling)
"there must be some mistake" - (mrs birling)
"no, he only showed it to me" - (evas pic) (mrs birling)


"like bees in a hive" - class (mr birling)
"who here will suffer more than i do" - social responsibility / class (mr birling)
"it would be very awkward, wouldnt it?" (referring to a responsible society) - (mr birling)
"the whole story's just a lot of moonshine" (foolish talk) mr birling

"he couldve kept her on instead of throwing out" -social responsibility/class (eric)
"cant blame her" - class (eric)
"why shouldnt they try for higher wages" - class (eric)
"i was a bit squiffy" - class (eric)
"it frightens me too" "i agree with her"


"lively, goodlooking girl" - class (eva smith)
"like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" - class (eva smith)
"but there are millions and millions of eva smiths"- responsibility (eva smith)


"we are members of one body" - inspector goole
"fire blood and anguish" - inspector goole
"cutting through massively" - inspector goole
"its better to ask for the earth than to take it" - inspector goole



social responsibility:
thesis:
Priestly presents social responsibility as vital for creating an inclusive society. He portrays the lack of social responsibility to be a result of the upperclass neglecting the lower classes out of idleness (new poor law 1834). Priestly shows his compassion for the lower class through showing a few of their struggles through the character Eva smith.
characters used: eva smith/sheila birling/mrs birling

eva smith: "lively good-looking girl"
lively: acknowledgeable, noticeable, he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he still did not has empathy to consider her as an actual person with purpose other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

sheila: "hes giving us the rope so that we"ll hang ourselves"
Sheila shows understanding that the inspector is solely here to help them acknowledge their wrongdoings and impact they had on Eva smiths life. He forces them to face the truth, so that their guilt will be a form of consequence.

mrs birling: "she was giving herself ridiculous airs"
Mrs birling thinks that eva smith presenting herself as the wife of an upperclass man was "ridiculous". This shows that she thought lowerclass having any title or prestige is impossible and additionally mocks her with the assertive tone she carries throughout speaking about eva "i didn't like her manner".

Edwardian attitudes:
There was a huge social divide. Your job, wealth, education and name tied to your tier in society. The lower class usually worked for the ruling class, for little pay. However these gentry and wealthy did not examine the system as it benefited them and lived a life of leisure. The Edwardian reader would've most likely initially brushed off these subconscious prejudicial attitudes - like being hypercritical on lower class, and viewing them as equal and naturally differentiating them, because of the social barrier created between them.

Older vs. Younger generation
thesis: Priestly presents the differences between the older and younger generation as constantly clashing with each others morals resulting in the lower class being viewed as idle and inferior by the older generation and are pitied by the younger generation. Priestly shows how the younger generation have the ability to change their future, especially those who descent from wealthy and prestige backgrounds.
characters used: MR BIRLING, MRS BIRLING, SHEILA BIRLING, ERIC BIRLING, EVA SMITH

Mr birling: "you hysterical young fool - get back or i"ll mr birling calls eric a "fool" while ironically acting violently and angrily - like a fool. Priestly shows how little the upperclass reflect on themselves and are completely oblivious to their behaviour. Ironically enough, the upperclass claim that the lowerclass are uneducated and even idle at times. But priestly reveals their true ignorance through a perfect example - Mr Birling - a rich businessman.

Mrs birling : "i was perfectly justified" in refusing eva to be given assistance. She prioritises her feelings over important and crucial issues surrounding the lowerclass. She doesnt understand the impact of her actions nor that she misused her position as a charity owner. She completely dismisses any negatives that came out of her decisions. The upperclass knows best.


Sheila Birling: "it was my own fault"- Sheila acknowledges how her actions have affected Eva's situation and potentially could've led to her suicide. She knows that she has control over her actions and that nothing influenced her to act in a callous way towards eva other than herself.

Eric Birling: "He could. He could have kept her on instead of throwing her out" "tough luck" Eric essentially mocks mr birling for "throwing" eva "out" when she protested for higher wages instead of acknowledging the actual reasons for the protests - the lowerclass were underpaid neglected and overlooked. Eric sees what happens to the lowerclass and the unfortunate situations they are forced to face.

Edwardian Attitudes: For over a thousand years, the wealthy viewed themselves as a race apart. Their power, wealth, status and political standing made every servant in England tend to the needs of their masters. The divide in the classes expanded, and the lower class were doomed to live a life of hard work and prejudice while the rich lived a life of extravagance.


gender
thesis: Priestly presents the theme of gender in An Inspector Calls through revealing how it affected the lower class, particularly women. He reveals how lower class women were threatened by the prejudices that ideas and attitudes carried within gender in Edwardian era.

characters used: eva smith, sheila Birling, Mrs Birling


Eva smith: "she was a lively good-looking girl" (description by birling)
Eva Smith: he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he chose to forget all of her qualities when she went on strike and spoke up about her mistreatment. He dismisses all of it without a doubt. This shows he still does not have the understanding to consider her as a valuable and ACTUAL person. He cannot fathom that she has rights and thoughts of her own which she chooses to express. Therefore he associates womens values with their looks. He truly doesnt think of her as anything other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

Sheila Birling: "very pleased with life"
women who were financially secured in Edwardian era lived a life of leisure and comfortably. It made them usually vain, and inconsiderate - Sheila causes Eva to be sacked from her job because of her misunderstood actions. Priestly shows how rich women were mainly oblivious to this because they usually were not employed since their husbands would provide for them, and women in general were not expected to be employed after being married. However, it could be said that most of women in Edwardian Era who were not part of the lowerclass, refused to acknowledge hardships of them and wanted to enjoy their leisure.


Mrs Birling: "a rather cold woman"
Priestly presents Mrs Birling as coldhearted and cruel to contrast it with Sheila Birling who seems rather unknowledgeable and oblivious towards lower-class's conditions which were perhaps even hidden by the idea that the system was a "tradition" that kept order. However Mrs Birling, who is a lot older, is enlightened on this but refuses to acknowledge the lower class. The fact that she is a wealthy owner of her own charity, and married to a businessman reveals the power and titles she carries. But it also reveals how she has the power to help the lower class but dismisses Eva Smith, despite being aware of the conditions that the lower class -in particular women- lived in.

Priestly shows the cruel and unlawful attitudes towards lower class women, and how the wealthy need to be forcefully educated on their ignorance to help society develop as a whole.

Class
thesis:
Priestly presents the theme of Class through a range of characters from different social and economic backgrounds. Priestly reveals the power behind the class system and how the "upperclass" abuses their power continuously.

characters used: Mr birling, Mrs Birling, Gerald

Mr birling: "like bees in a hive - community and all that nonsense" Priestly presents Mr Birling through showing how he doesnt believe in a society where everyone is equal (like bees in a hive) and he also thinks that an equal society without hierarchy would be chaotic, messy and unstable (like bees in a hive). He thinks its "nonsense" and genuinely doesnt even consider it as something that could be real.

Mrs birling: "like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" Priestly presents Mrs Birling as ignorant and presumptuous. Mrs Birling is certain of her assumptions about Eva Smith, but Priestly ironically exposes that Mrs Birling is aware of the conditions and difficulties that the lower class face. Yet, upperclass like her continue to dismiss their issues and choose to behave superior since they are financially secured.


Gerald: "we're respectable citizens and not criminals" - Priestly reveals how Gerald believes that since he and the Birling Family are from privileged backgrounds with high social status, they cannot be considered to be criminals. Priestly reveals what Gerald is concerned about - what he is referred as. A criminal is looked down upon therefore he does not associate with them, or similarly, the lowerclass.


social/historical context:

During Edwardian era, the class system was set up and heavily enforced. The working class were seen as responsible for their poverty and "consequently" perceived as idle and inferior. They were given low income
and their state (and poverty as whole) was neglected. they were segregated

Women in Edwardian society were very regarded as second-class citizens. They had less rights than men, were expected to abide by different social rules like marriage, couldnt vote , so were unable to influence or change laws that discriminated against them.
This reminds the audience (who is hearing this in 1945 when women had already gotten the rights to vote in 1918) of the inhumane and demeaning treatment that women received - similarly to the working class/lower class. It couldve helped the edwardian readers understanding as they have lived through times where women had similar inferiorities like the poor.

Women were seen as a family’s possession, to be groomed for marriage, wealthy, have and raise children, run a household, not much changed from the Medieval perception of women. what a woman could or would do was based on whether she was married. poor women would often resort to prostitution due to the extreme low wages.

men were the breadwinners and the main source of income for the family. they were responsible for them and made the decisions. men were allowed to have affairs/ it was normal. men had many opportunities for work. their wages were higher. this would resort to the readers at first defending mr Birling and Gerald

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

a christmas carol essay plan

IDEAS:
- [x] - [x] - [x] CHARITY
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- [x] - [x] GREED
- [x] - [x] - [x] POVERTY
- [x] - [x] - [x] REDEMPTION
THE SUPERNATURAL
characters: scrooge, tiny tim, belle, fezziwig, fred, charity collectors, marleys ghost, ghost of christmas past, ghost of christmas present, ghost of christmas yet to come.


Charity:
thesis - Dickens displays the theme of charity through a range of characters that were affected by poverty in Victorian era. Dickens reveals to his readers how important being charitable is and how much it affects the poor. Dickens warns to his readers that if the rich do not become charitable, the cycle of poverty will continue.
(characters used: Scrooge, Fezziwig, Charity collectors)

Scrooge - Dickens reveals the theme of charity through the protagonist Scrooge. Dickens develops his character by making him greedy and selfish in the beginning of the novella (Stave 1 , charity collectors) and showing how his redemption led him to becoming a charitable person. (Stave 5 scrooge gives a child money and increases his workers's salary) Dickens uses scrooge as a representation of the rich to prove to his readers that the rich have the ability to become charitable and giving.

Mr Fezziwig -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through Mr. Fezziwig using his authority with kindness towards his workers and charitable manner. Dickens uses this character to show how Scrooge begins to realise that he has not followed Fezziwig's example of being in power (stave 2). Dickens uses him to show his readers that even though he is a person with status and power, he profits with kindness, generosity, and affection for his employees. Fezziwig is a symbolizes the
common values and civilized society which was taken away by the economic disturbance of the 1800's.

Charity collectors -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through the charity collectors asking the protagonist Scrooge to donate to the poor. Dickens utilises them to display the behaviour that should be seen during Christmas. Dickens presents them to show to his readers the contrast in "christmas spirit" between Scrooge and the charity collectors, to educate his readers about how important charity is during Christmas as it can reveal a persons values.

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"why to a poor one most?" "because it needs it most"
"thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts" // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig



SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of social responsibility through a range of characters that illustrate the struggles that the poor and lower class have to face because of the lack of duty that the rich feel for them.
Dickens employs ideas of social responsibility to convey the impact that a lack but also a gain of social consciousness can lead to either doom or eternal happiness.
characters used: (scrooge, fred,
the cratchits family)


scrooge: dickens utilises Scrooge's development with the idea that social responsibility is crucial for the rich to create within themselves. he presents scrooge as selfish and ignorant "decrease the surplus population" to contrast it later in the play with him showing understanding of the lower class and their conditions "im about to raise ur salary" "ill give u a shilling/and ill give u half a crown"

fred: dickens utilises fred's behaviour and hope towards the upperclass/rich's wrongdoings to highlight how important acts of social responsibility are to the poor and how they infact do have an understanding of its impact on others. fred has hope for scrooge and is determined to help him change throughout the play (stave 3 "i mean to give him the same chance every year" "i pity him")

the Cratchits family: dickens utilises the Cratchits family to reveal the struggles that poor were facing and were hidden by the rich. dickens shows how they are able to contain social responsibility as they have lived in a society that has completely neglected them of having any contribution by labeling them as idle and dangerous. This is why the Cratchits family feels blessed for every single thing in their life which makes them feel responsible to make sure that everyone around them is given the same treatment. (god bless us everyone! //stave 3
monstrous collar "nearly choked him")


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "i'll give u half-a-crown"


GREED
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of Greed through a range of characters, and employs the protagonist Scrooge, who is overtaken by his desperation to stay wealthy and urge to keep all his gain to himself. Dickens exposes how the bourgeoisie, otherwise known to be represented by Scrooge, choose to be continuously greedy out of their idleness and lack of empathy towards the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Fred, Belle.


Scrooge: "i cannot afford to make idle people merry" - Dickens reveals how Scrooge thinks that the poor are "idle" and that he cannot "afford" to make them happy. This is ironic as the poor in Victorian Age were put in a cycle of poverty due to the people that were too selfish to help them through charities or raising their pay. Dickens use of dramatic irony is effective here as his victorian audience is reminded of the cruel and callous attitude that most people had towards the poor at the time.

Fred: "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?"
Dickens utilises Fred as a foil to scrooge. Fred states "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" to Scrooge. Knowing that Fred and Scrooge represent the poor and bourgeoisie, Dickens reveals how even after the poor in Victorian Age were put into workhouses, were abandoned and were given low pay, they remained obedient and held no grudges as they had no wealth - therefore no power to change their lives. However the rich continued to look down upon the poor and even mistreat them because of their status in society.


Belle: "until the master-passion Gain, engrosses you"
Belle states how Scrooge used to have noble aspirations, for example becoming like Fezziwig , but chose to let his desire for financial gain overtake him to the point where he loses not only his virtue but also his relationship with Belle. Dickens uses "master passion" to describe how Scrooge views "gain" - he idolises it and sees it as his main priority and a goal. Scrooge is blinded by it and cannot understand that it caused him to become greedy to others, however Belle is aware that it has led him to neglecting everything that surrounds him - perhaps just like the bourgeoisie abandoning the poor for their own satisfaction and comfort.


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"


Poverty
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of poverty through a range of characters who are exposed to the tragedies, truths and consequences of poverty. Dickens reveals to his readers how each character's perception of poverty and what they do to help break the cycle of it, is significant as it directly affects the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Ignorance and Want, Peter cratchit


Scrooge: "Why to a poor one most?" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"
Dickens reveals how Scrooge, otherwise known to be representing the bourgeoisie, is confused on why the poor is need of provision and care. Scrooge is shown to be doubting the "Ghost of Christmas present", which reinforces how ignorant and stubborn the bourgeoisie are, and how resilient majority of them were to understanding/acknowledging their tragic conditions. However it could be foreshadowing the character that Scrooge develops into, which is someone who's charitable and eager to find ways to help the poor. Perhaps this is Dickens showing that poverty must be tackled through educating the powerful members of society, as they are the ones who are responsible for the conditions of the poor.



Ignorance and Want: "a stale and shrivelled hand" "pinched" "twisted" "pulled them into shreds" "most of all beware this boy" "Doom" "monsters" "horrible and dread" "words choked themselves" "a lie of such enormous magnitude"
Dickens represents the bourgeoisie as a "stale and shrivelled hand" that "pinched..twisted..pulled" Ignorance and Want into "shreds". The bourgeaisie's description and actions effectively reinforces how inhumane they were against the poor, and how they were even inflicting difficulty into their lives recklessly, not caring what the consequence of that would be. Ignorance and want are described as "monsters" and "dread". This shows how the poor were known to be feared, disregarded, and overall seen as inhuman. These words show how the poor were not only seen as inferior but also got labeled as something to be feared of. This couldve been used ironically to show how they were actually perhaps afraid of the consequences the rich have to accept as their own, rather than the appearances of the poor (which theyre also the cause of).

Peter Cratchit: "monstrous shirt"
"although his collars nearly choked him"

Dickens uses Peter Cratchit to present the cycle of poverty is continuous and ends up trapping children into it. Peter is shown to be wearing a "monstrous (work) shirt". This directly shows that Peter, who is a poor child, is too young to be working as the shirt does not fit him. It reminds the Victorian reader that poverty takes away the childhood of the poor, and their innocence while also forcing them to mature. It creates empathy for the reader, making them care more for the poor as children, who are vulnerable, are involved. Furthermore, the collars "choking" him shows that the bourgeoisie forces the poor to take on the consequences made by them after neglecting the poor into workhouses and low-paying jobs, and making poor children work.


QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



Redemption:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of redemption through showing how any ignorant, selfish or miser individual can receive the opportunity of redemption by going through a period of self reflection. Dickens enlightens his readers upon how the rich refusing to acknowledge their lack of responsibility will lead to a miserable, invaluable life wherein they did not change their behavior towards the poor which will result in to their doom.

scrooge: "why to a poor one most?" (because it needs it most) "cramp these peoples opportunies of innocent enjoyment"
Scrooge starts his transformation and redemption through questioning why the rich should stop profiting off of the exploitation of the poor- which included them contributing to the persistent low wages and neglecting the poor which led to them being perceived as idle. Dickens exposes how the rich benefited from the poor through showing Scrooge's awareness of this which emphasizes how he was still at the first stage of his exposure to the poor's conditions - perhaps because of how the rich hid the poor's conditions within industries like workhouses.

Ghost Of Christmas Yet To Come: "I fear you more than any spectre I have seen"
Scrooge's last stage of his redemption is filled with terrorizing him with fear and reality (as this he sees Ignorance and Want) to show how Victorian society must be forced and scared into redemption with supernatural ideas as they would be more likely to believe in them rather than believe in how inefficient they are in terms of tackling poverty and the lack of responsibility they feel towards it. Dickens also shows how even religious beliefs (in this case demons/ghosts) were taken more seriously than the poor, and as a result Scrooge does inevitably show his submissiveness and obedience towards this ghost which could be used ironically to prove how they were willing to listen to supernatural rather than actual humans (the poor which they didn't treat as ones).


Marleys ghost: nothing can "make amends for one life’s opportunity misused.’’ "made of cash boxes, keys, deeds”
Dickens presents Marleys ghost to Scrooge to remind him of the consequences he will face if he does not change his miser and misanthrope-like behavior towards the poor and society as a whole. Dickens emphasizes how Scrooge will be imprisoned by his selfishness as he will views "cashboxes" (wealth) as something crucial and as a priority over being filled with virtue and goodness. Dickens also exposes how his "deeds" (wrongdoings, neglectfulness) will haunt him with a purgatory that Marley is similarly enduring. Dickens highlights how the poor have had their opportunities ripped off of them with low wages and neglect from the rich - resulting in them being forced to work and being exploited/"misused".


QUOTES for REDEMPTION:
"make amends for one life's opportunity being misused"
"cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment" "why to a poor ones most"
"I fear you more than any spectre i have seen"

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"Many thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts, sir." // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "come back with him in 5 minutes and i'll give u half-a-crown"


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"

QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



good luck ^^ PLEASEEE make sure u do past papers regularly and get them marked by an english teacher !! DO. PAST. PAPERS 😁ALR BYE
Hi, welcome to The Student Room!
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Thank you so much for this!!




(Original post by naevillera)hey guys im leaving my eng lit notes here for if u want to get a grade 7-8. I was one mark off an 8, i dont care enough to get it remarked LMAO but hopefully this can help yr 11's 😁


MACBETH
themes:
ambition
supernatural
fate
violence
morality

intro act1: the witches meet macbeth and their first prophecies are made.

rising action act2: macbeth kills king duncan, macbeth is controlled by lady macbeth.

climax act3: macbeth is king, banquo is murdered, fleance escapes, macduff and malcolm go to england.

falling action act4: macbeth goes to witches, macduff family is murdered, malcolm and macduff plan invasion (turn grief into anger)

catastrophe act5: Malcolm and macduff invade Scotland, Malcolm becomes king, lady macbeth and macbeth die.

ambition
social context: The king is closer to God than anyone else in society, and he was chosen by god. Thus, obeying the king was more than a national duty, it became a religious duty. Shakespeare may have been likely to display Lady Macbeth as ambitious and raging, a masculine trait, to make the readers at that time understand the impact that a change in the order of natural being had on the divine right of kings, as she became an illegitimate queen.

supernatural
social context:
many people in elizabethan times believed in the presence of the supernatural and blamed illnesses or unexplained deaths on it. perhaps shakespeare portrays the supernatural in a negative light to emphasise its true viciousness and fit with what society thought about it. "fair is foul foul is fair" "fenny snake" engaging in the supernatural led to a distortion in the divine rights of kings.

guilt
social context:
the natural chain of being made it easy for lady Macbeth to feel guilty about killing King Duncan as her enthronement was illegitimate as she was not an heir/not chosen by god/unnatural queen. this is shown when lady Macbeth drastically suffers from hallucinations. Macbeth felt no guilt in terms of not being able securing his throne at first but later is overtaken by guilt and commits immoral acts, turns to the supernatural instead of turning to God for forgiveness- Shakespeare reminds the audience that regicide is an unforgivable sin, and Macbeth was aware of this. LM convinces him his virtue is too full of ("human kindness")

appearance/reality
shakespeare successfully conveyed the idea of deception through displaying it as a way of life for the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
social context:
In terms of context, readers in Elizabethan era related to this as they had to hide their social, religious and overall views about the monarchy to not get executed or land in danger. "be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide"

fate
social context:
shakespeare successfully conveys the idea of fate through displaying it as something that can be distorted and used for justification to commit immoral acts. In terms of context, the natural chain of being usually justified if the king went against any rule as he was closest to God, giving him the opportunity to commit any act. "if ill" "why..earnest of success"

masculinity/femininity:
Shakespeare successfully conveys the idea that a distortion in Elizabethan societal roles, or the natural chain of being, can create people without self-control or rationality.

quotations:

macbeth: "unseamd from the nave to the chaps" "false face must hide" "we will proceed no further"
lady macbeth: "was the hope drunk" "pluckd my nipple" "take my milk for gall"
banquo: "restrain me from these cursed thoughts" "my noble partner"
king duncan: "his virtue will plead like angels"
"so meek" "brave macbeth"
macduff: "all my pretty ones" "tyrant" "show thy face"






"macbeth does murder sleep"- guilt
"false face must hide"- guilt
"we will proceed no further"-guilt

"take my milk for gall"- ambition
"when u durst to do it, then u were a man"- ambition
"unsex me here"-ambition
"restrain me in the cursed thoughts"-ambition
"false face must hide.."-ambition
"dashd the brains out"-ambition
"pluckd my nipple"-ambition
"as hounds and greyhounds" - ambition

"his virtue will plead like angels"-power
"so meek" - power
"all my pretty ones?"-power

"that which u are my thoughts cannot transpose" - loyalty
"brave macbeth" -loyalty
"loyalty i owe"-loyalty
"Your patience so predominant in your nature" -loyalty

language analysis

Ambition: thesis
Shakespeare presents ambition as something that can overtake and blind you to morality.

Shakespeare develops this idea through Macbeth, by displaying how his high ambition caused him to lose control and endlessly kill people.

Shakespeare employs this idea through Lady Macbeth, by showing how her ambition to become queen caused her to turn to the supernatural (this was seen as a major issue as it was seen as a sin to engage in the supernatural/unnatural during Shakespearean time).
Ambition also caused her to commit suicide after endlessly lying and repressing her worries about King Duncans murder- it drove her insane.

Key scenes for Ambition:
" take my milk for gall" if u were under the influence of yellow bile you would become violent resentful raging spiteful ambitious.
Macbeth Act 1.
"To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus" - Macbeth
Macbeth finds being king meaningless if he cannot be king without being safe. Giving into his ambition has not given him peace whatsoever. He feels even more anxious and paranoid. (guilt)



Supernatural:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the supernatural through a range of characters that have had a tremendous effect on the protagonists Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
key characters:
(the witches, banquos ghost, dagger, Macbeth/lady Macbeth's downfall)

key scenes for supernatural:
"is this a dagger i see before me?" act 2
"fair is foul foul is fair" act 1 scene 1
"thy gory locks at me" (act 3)
"take my milk for gall"
*thunder and lightning* act 1 scene 1

is this a dagger i see before me?--
Macbeth is finally convinced to kill King Duncan after hallucinating a dagger, floating and covered in blood. The supernatural convinced him to reach his ultimate decision after contemplating the murder. This is because the hallucination was the final thing that drove Macbeth to committing the murder as it is the last thing he sees before killing the king.
*thunder and lightning* (stage directions) are highly effective. It sets the atmosphere and foreshadows the tragedies within this play that are about to be chaotic and significant just like the weather. The supernatural is shown to be powerful as they impact the weather of the play, signifying that they will also impact the characters.





fate:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the theme of fate through a range of characters who all lead different lives - causing them to have different fates. Shakespeare reveals how their fates are disturbed by the supernatural and ones who choose to engage with it, but also those who decide to distort the divine rights of kings.

characters used: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, banquo, king duncan



Macbeth: "To be thus is nothing,
But to be safely thus" "Know Banquo was your enemy"
Macbeth is willing to change his fate and distort God's will in order to claim his throne. He thinks its useless to let fate (banquo/ children having a claim to the throne) exist and feels an urge to change it. He continuously changes his fate but now also the divive rights of kings by attempting to murder the heirs. He even tries to manipulate "the murderers" into thinking that Banquo was the Kings enemy, therefore they would undoubtely obey the kings commands. However macbeth fails to kill the heir Fleance, showing how macbeth is not powerful enough as his power to change fate is limited - he can only take away life but he cannot change gods will.


Lady Macbeth: "fate and metaphysical aid..(seem to want u to have the crown)"
Lady macbeth justifies her immoral actions by stating that fate and "metaphysical" (supernatural) want him to have the crown. She truly believes that the supernatural provide them with true prophecies and are linked to his faith. She associates it with fate, revealing that she uses it as a guide and something she confides in.


King Duncan: "rejoicing" "greatness" // After macbeth gets the prophecies, he tells his wife that he wants to be "rejoicing"/ celebrating the announcement of his claim to the throne and claims it is "greatness". This contrasts to his further view on the king he called "so meek", which showed that he did not fear the king or his position, and perhaps even thought that he could be a greater king.


morality
thesis: Shakespeare presents does theme of morality through showing how a lack of morality creates a distortion in society as christian values are not being met, therefore this leads to a disruption in the natural order of being/divine rights of kings which structure society.

quotes: "so meek" "we have scorched the snake not killed it" "be the innocent flower but be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide" "dashd the brains out"

AN INSPECTOR CALLS

an inspector calls
themes:
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] older vs younger generation
- [x] social responsibility
- [x] - [x] gender
- [x] - [x] - [x] class



STRUCTURE OF AN INSPECTOR CALLS
- simple narrative structure
- beginning, complex plot, climax, end
- sequences of revelations - how everyone affected eva smith & their secrets
- play continues in the same place, has one main aim, play ends in less than 24 hrs
- highly realistic (therefore engaging)
- ends with Priestly's main message in the play- social responsibility.

act 1 : engagement party, inspector arrives, Birling & sheila questioned
act 2: gerald and Mrs birling questioned
act 3. eric questioned, Inspector final speech, false identity and final end.
each act ends with the inspector

act1: sheila mocks Gerald for thinking he can deceive the inspector by lying. Inspector enters with "well?"
act2: inspector holds up a hand to stop sheila and mrs birling argument about eric's possible involvement in the Eva Smith case.
act3: ends with a cyclical structure (in the same place with everyone in the room as the inspector leaves)

the play ends on a cliffhanger - signifying the chaos and turmoil that is about to enter.
the readers are more likely to discuss the ending- which also means that they will talk about the play as a whole and its idea throughout the whole play.




quotations:


"we're respectable citizens not criminals" - class (gerald)
"you couldnt have done anything else" - (gerald)
"shed lived very economically on what id allowed her" - gender/responsibility (gerald)
"everything's alright now sheila what about this ring"

"hes giving us the rope"- social responsibility (sheila)
"now i feel really engaged" - class (sheila)
"very pleased with life" - class (sheila)
"it was my own fault" - class (sheila)
"it frightens me the way u talk"
"You mustn’t try to build up a wall between us and that girl"


"she was giving herself ridiculous airs" - class (mrs birling)
"i was perfectly justified" - social responsibility (mrs birling)
"a rather cold woman" - (mrs birling)
"there must be some mistake" - (mrs birling)
"no, he only showed it to me" - (evas pic) (mrs birling)


"like bees in a hive" - class (mr birling)
"who here will suffer more than i do" - social responsibility / class (mr birling)
"it would be very awkward, wouldnt it?" (referring to a responsible society) - (mr birling)
"the whole story's just a lot of moonshine" (foolish talk) mr birling

"he couldve kept her on instead of throwing out" -social responsibility/class (eric)
"cant blame her" - class (eric)
"why shouldnt they try for higher wages" - class (eric)
"i was a bit squiffy" - class (eric)
"it frightens me too" "i agree with her"


"lively, goodlooking girl" - class (eva smith)
"like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" - class (eva smith)
"but there are millions and millions of eva smiths"- responsibility (eva smith)


"we are members of one body" - inspector goole
"fire blood and anguish" - inspector goole
"cutting through massively" - inspector goole
"its better to ask for the earth than to take it" - inspector goole



social responsibility:
thesis:
Priestly presents social responsibility as vital for creating an inclusive society. He portrays the lack of social responsibility to be a result of the upperclass neglecting the lower classes out of idleness (new poor law 1834). Priestly shows his compassion for the lower class through showing a few of their struggles through the character Eva smith.
characters used: eva smith/sheila birling/mrs birling

eva smith: "lively good-looking girl"
lively: acknowledgeable, noticeable, he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he still did not has empathy to consider her as an actual person with purpose other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

sheila: "hes giving us the rope so that we"ll hang ourselves"
Sheila shows understanding that the inspector is solely here to help them acknowledge their wrongdoings and impact they had on Eva smiths life. He forces them to face the truth, so that their guilt will be a form of consequence.

mrs birling: "she was giving herself ridiculous airs"
Mrs birling thinks that eva smith presenting herself as the wife of an upperclass man was "ridiculous". This shows that she thought lowerclass having any title or prestige is impossible and additionally mocks her with the assertive tone she carries throughout speaking about eva "i didn't like her manner".

Edwardian attitudes:
There was a huge social divide. Your job, wealth, education and name tied to your tier in society. The lower class usually worked for the ruling class, for little pay. However these gentry and wealthy did not examine the system as it benefited them and lived a life of leisure. The Edwardian reader would've most likely initially brushed off these subconscious prejudicial attitudes - like being hypercritical on lower class, and viewing them as equal and naturally differentiating them, because of the social barrier created between them.

Older vs. Younger generation
thesis: Priestly presents the differences between the older and younger generation as constantly clashing with each others morals resulting in the lower class being viewed as idle and inferior by the older generation and are pitied by the younger generation. Priestly shows how the younger generation have the ability to change their future, especially those who descent from wealthy and prestige backgrounds.
characters used: MR BIRLING, MRS BIRLING, SHEILA BIRLING, ERIC BIRLING, EVA SMITH

Mr birling: "you hysterical young fool - get back or i"ll mr birling calls eric a "fool" while ironically acting violently and angrily - like a fool. Priestly shows how little the upperclass reflect on themselves and are completely oblivious to their behaviour. Ironically enough, the upperclass claim that the lowerclass are uneducated and even idle at times. But priestly reveals their true ignorance through a perfect example - Mr Birling - a rich businessman.

Mrs birling : "i was perfectly justified" in refusing eva to be given assistance. She prioritises her feelings over important and crucial issues surrounding the lowerclass. She doesnt understand the impact of her actions nor that she misused her position as a charity owner. She completely dismisses any negatives that came out of her decisions. The upperclass knows best.


Sheila Birling: "it was my own fault"- Sheila acknowledges how her actions have affected Eva's situation and potentially could've led to her suicide. She knows that she has control over her actions and that nothing influenced her to act in a callous way towards eva other than herself.

Eric Birling: "He could. He could have kept her on instead of throwing her out" "tough luck" Eric essentially mocks mr birling for "throwing" eva "out" when she protested for higher wages instead of acknowledging the actual reasons for the protests - the lowerclass were underpaid neglected and overlooked. Eric sees what happens to the lowerclass and the unfortunate situations they are forced to face.

Edwardian Attitudes: For over a thousand years, the wealthy viewed themselves as a race apart. Their power, wealth, status and political standing made every servant in England tend to the needs of their masters. The divide in the classes expanded, and the lower class were doomed to live a life of hard work and prejudice while the rich lived a life of extravagance.


gender
thesis: Priestly presents the theme of gender in An Inspector Calls through revealing how it affected the lower class, particularly women. He reveals how lower class women were threatened by the prejudices that ideas and attitudes carried within gender in Edwardian era.

characters used: eva smith, sheila Birling, Mrs Birling


Eva smith: "she was a lively good-looking girl" (description by birling)
Eva Smith: he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he chose to forget all of her qualities when she went on strike and spoke up about her mistreatment. He dismisses all of it without a doubt. This shows he still does not have the understanding to consider her as a valuable and ACTUAL person. He cannot fathom that she has rights and thoughts of her own which she chooses to express. Therefore he associates womens values with their looks. He truly doesnt think of her as anything other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

Sheila Birling: "very pleased with life"
women who were financially secured in Edwardian era lived a life of leisure and comfortably. It made them usually vain, and inconsiderate - Sheila causes Eva to be sacked from her job because of her misunderstood actions. Priestly shows how rich women were mainly oblivious to this because they usually were not employed since their husbands would provide for them, and women in general were not expected to be employed after being married. However, it could be said that most of women in Edwardian Era who were not part of the lowerclass, refused to acknowledge hardships of them and wanted to enjoy their leisure.


Mrs Birling: "a rather cold woman"
Priestly presents Mrs Birling as coldhearted and cruel to contrast it with Sheila Birling who seems rather unknowledgeable and oblivious towards lower-class's conditions which were perhaps even hidden by the idea that the system was a "tradition" that kept order. However Mrs Birling, who is a lot older, is enlightened on this but refuses to acknowledge the lower class. The fact that she is a wealthy owner of her own charity, and married to a businessman reveals the power and titles she carries. But it also reveals how she has the power to help the lower class but dismisses Eva Smith, despite being aware of the conditions that the lower class -in particular women- lived in.

Priestly shows the cruel and unlawful attitudes towards lower class women, and how the wealthy need to be forcefully educated on their ignorance to help society develop as a whole.

Class
thesis:
Priestly presents the theme of Class through a range of characters from different social and economic backgrounds. Priestly reveals the power behind the class system and how the "upperclass" abuses their power continuously.

characters used: Mr birling, Mrs Birling, Gerald

Mr birling: "like bees in a hive - community and all that nonsense" Priestly presents Mr Birling through showing how he doesnt believe in a society where everyone is equal (like bees in a hive) and he also thinks that an equal society without hierarchy would be chaotic, messy and unstable (like bees in a hive). He thinks its "nonsense" and genuinely doesnt even consider it as something that could be real.

Mrs birling: "like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" Priestly presents Mrs Birling as ignorant and presumptuous. Mrs Birling is certain of her assumptions about Eva Smith, but Priestly ironically exposes that Mrs Birling is aware of the conditions and difficulties that the lower class face. Yet, upperclass like her continue to dismiss their issues and choose to behave superior since they are financially secured.


Gerald: "we're respectable citizens and not criminals" - Priestly reveals how Gerald believes that since he and the Birling Family are from privileged backgrounds with high social status, they cannot be considered to be criminals. Priestly reveals what Gerald is concerned about - what he is referred as. A criminal is looked down upon therefore he does not associate with them, or similarly, the lowerclass.


social/historical context:

During Edwardian era, the class system was set up and heavily enforced. The working class were seen as responsible for their poverty and "consequently" perceived as idle and inferior. They were given low income
and their state (and poverty as whole) was neglected. they were segregated

Women in Edwardian society were very regarded as second-class citizens. They had less rights than men, were expected to abide by different social rules like marriage, couldnt vote , so were unable to influence or change laws that discriminated against them.
This reminds the audience (who is hearing this in 1945 when women had already gotten the rights to vote in 1918) of the inhumane and demeaning treatment that women received - similarly to the working class/lower class. It couldve helped the edwardian readers understanding as they have lived through times where women had similar inferiorities like the poor.

Women were seen as a family’s possession, to be groomed for marriage, wealthy, have and raise children, run a household, not much changed from the Medieval perception of women. what a woman could or would do was based on whether she was married. poor women would often resort to prostitution due to the extreme low wages.

men were the breadwinners and the main source of income for the family. they were responsible for them and made the decisions. men were allowed to have affairs/ it was normal. men had many opportunities for work. their wages were higher. this would resort to the readers at first defending mr Birling and Gerald

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

a christmas carol essay plan

IDEAS:
- [x] - [x] - [x] CHARITY
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- [x] - [x] GREED
- [x] - [x] - [x] POVERTY
- [x] - [x] - [x] REDEMPTION
THE SUPERNATURAL
characters: scrooge, tiny tim, belle, fezziwig, fred, charity collectors, marleys ghost, ghost of christmas past, ghost of christmas present, ghost of christmas yet to come.


Charity:
thesis - Dickens displays the theme of charity through a range of characters that were affected by poverty in Victorian era. Dickens reveals to his readers how important being charitable is and how much it affects the poor. Dickens warns to his readers that if the rich do not become charitable, the cycle of poverty will continue.
(characters used: Scrooge, Fezziwig, Charity collectors)

Scrooge - Dickens reveals the theme of charity through the protagonist Scrooge. Dickens develops his character by making him greedy and selfish in the beginning of the novella (Stave 1 , charity collectors) and showing how his redemption led him to becoming a charitable person. (Stave 5 scrooge gives a child money and increases his workers's salary) Dickens uses scrooge as a representation of the rich to prove to his readers that the rich have the ability to become charitable and giving.

Mr Fezziwig -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through Mr. Fezziwig using his authority with kindness towards his workers and charitable manner. Dickens uses this character to show how Scrooge begins to realise that he has not followed Fezziwig's example of being in power (stave 2). Dickens uses him to show his readers that even though he is a person with status and power, he profits with kindness, generosity, and affection for his employees. Fezziwig is a symbolizes the
common values and civilized society which was taken away by the economic disturbance of the 1800's.

Charity collectors -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through the charity collectors asking the protagonist Scrooge to donate to the poor. Dickens utilises them to display the behaviour that should be seen during Christmas. Dickens presents them to show to his readers the contrast in "christmas spirit" between Scrooge and the charity collectors, to educate his readers about how important charity is during Christmas as it can reveal a persons values.

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"why to a poor one most?" "because it needs it most"
"thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts" // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig



SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of social responsibility through a range of characters that illustrate the struggles that the poor and lower class have to face because of the lack of duty that the rich feel for them.
Dickens employs ideas of social responsibility to convey the impact that a lack but also a gain of social consciousness can lead to either doom or eternal happiness.
characters used: (scrooge, fred,
the cratchits family)


scrooge: dickens utilises Scrooge's development with the idea that social responsibility is crucial for the rich to create within themselves. he presents scrooge as selfish and ignorant "decrease the surplus population" to contrast it later in the play with him showing understanding of the lower class and their conditions "im about to raise ur salary" "ill give u a shilling/and ill give u half a crown"

fred: dickens utilises fred's behaviour and hope towards the upperclass/rich's wrongdoings to highlight how important acts of social responsibility are to the poor and how they infact do have an understanding of its impact on others. fred has hope for scrooge and is determined to help him change throughout the play (stave 3 "i mean to give him the same chance every year" "i pity him")

the Cratchits family: dickens utilises the Cratchits family to reveal the struggles that poor were facing and were hidden by the rich. dickens shows how they are able to contain social responsibility as they have lived in a society that has completely neglected them of having any contribution by labeling them as idle and dangerous. This is why the Cratchits family feels blessed for every single thing in their life which makes them feel responsible to make sure that everyone around them is given the same treatment. (god bless us everyone! //stave 3
monstrous collar "nearly choked him")


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "i'll give u half-a-crown"


GREED
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of Greed through a range of characters, and employs the protagonist Scrooge, who is overtaken by his desperation to stay wealthy and urge to keep all his gain to himself. Dickens exposes how the bourgeoisie, otherwise known to be represented by Scrooge, choose to be continuously greedy out of their idleness and lack of empathy towards the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Fred, Belle.


Scrooge: "i cannot afford to make idle people merry" - Dickens reveals how Scrooge thinks that the poor are "idle" and that he cannot "afford" to make them happy. This is ironic as the poor in Victorian Age were put in a cycle of poverty due to the people that were too selfish to help them through charities or raising their pay. Dickens use of dramatic irony is effective here as his victorian audience is reminded of the cruel and callous attitude that most people had towards the poor at the time.

Fred: "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?"
Dickens utilises Fred as a foil to scrooge. Fred states "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" to Scrooge. Knowing that Fred and Scrooge represent the poor and bourgeoisie, Dickens reveals how even after the poor in Victorian Age were put into workhouses, were abandoned and were given low pay, they remained obedient and held no grudges as they had no wealth - therefore no power to change their lives. However the rich continued to look down upon the poor and even mistreat them because of their status in society.


Belle: "until the master-passion Gain, engrosses you"
Belle states how Scrooge used to have noble aspirations, for example becoming like Fezziwig , but chose to let his desire for financial gain overtake him to the point where he loses not only his virtue but also his relationship with Belle. Dickens uses "master passion" to describe how Scrooge views "gain" - he idolises it and sees it as his main priority and a goal. Scrooge is blinded by it and cannot understand that it caused him to become greedy to others, however Belle is aware that it has led him to neglecting everything that surrounds him - perhaps just like the bourgeoisie abandoning the poor for their own satisfaction and comfort.


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"


Poverty
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of poverty through a range of characters who are exposed to the tragedies, truths and consequences of poverty. Dickens reveals to his readers how each character's perception of poverty and what they do to help break the cycle of it, is significant as it directly affects the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Ignorance and Want, Peter cratchit


Scrooge: "Why to a poor one most?" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"
Dickens reveals how Scrooge, otherwise known to be representing the bourgeoisie, is confused on why the poor is need of provision and care. Scrooge is shown to be doubting the "Ghost of Christmas present", which reinforces how ignorant and stubborn the bourgeoisie are, and how resilient majority of them were to understanding/acknowledging their tragic conditions. However it could be foreshadowing the character that Scrooge develops into, which is someone who's charitable and eager to find ways to help the poor. Perhaps this is Dickens showing that poverty must be tackled through educating the powerful members of society, as they are the ones who are responsible for the conditions of the poor.



Ignorance and Want: "a stale and shrivelled hand" "pinched" "twisted" "pulled them into shreds" "most of all beware this boy" "Doom" "monsters" "horrible and dread" "words choked themselves" "a lie of such enormous magnitude"
Dickens represents the bourgeoisie as a "stale and shrivelled hand" that "pinched..twisted..pulled" Ignorance and Want into "shreds". The bourgeaisie's description and actions effectively reinforces how inhumane they were against the poor, and how they were even inflicting difficulty into their lives recklessly, not caring what the consequence of that would be. Ignorance and want are described as "monsters" and "dread". This shows how the poor were known to be feared, disregarded, and overall seen as inhuman. These words show how the poor were not only seen as inferior but also got labeled as something to be feared of. This couldve been used ironically to show how they were actually perhaps afraid of the consequences the rich have to accept as their own, rather than the appearances of the poor (which theyre also the cause of).

Peter Cratchit: "monstrous shirt"
"although his collars nearly choked him"

Dickens uses Peter Cratchit to present the cycle of poverty is continuous and ends up trapping children into it. Peter is shown to be wearing a "monstrous (work) shirt". This directly shows that Peter, who is a poor child, is too young to be working as the shirt does not fit him. It reminds the Victorian reader that poverty takes away the childhood of the poor, and their innocence while also forcing them to mature. It creates empathy for the reader, making them care more for the poor as children, who are vulnerable, are involved. Furthermore, the collars "choking" him shows that the bourgeoisie forces the poor to take on the consequences made by them after neglecting the poor into workhouses and low-paying jobs, and making poor children work.


QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



Redemption:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of redemption through showing how any ignorant, selfish or miser individual can receive the opportunity of redemption by going through a period of self reflection. Dickens enlightens his readers upon how the rich refusing to acknowledge their lack of responsibility will lead to a miserable, invaluable life wherein they did not change their behavior towards the poor which will result in to their doom.

scrooge: "why to a poor one most?" (because it needs it most) "cramp these peoples opportunies of innocent enjoyment"
Scrooge starts his transformation and redemption through questioning why the rich should stop profiting off of the exploitation of the poor- which included them contributing to the persistent low wages and neglecting the poor which led to them being perceived as idle. Dickens exposes how the rich benefited from the poor through showing Scrooge's awareness of this which emphasizes how he was still at the first stage of his exposure to the poor's conditions - perhaps because of how the rich hid the poor's conditions within industries like workhouses.

Ghost Of Christmas Yet To Come: "I fear you more than any spectre I have seen"
Scrooge's last stage of his redemption is filled with terrorizing him with fear and reality (as this he sees Ignorance and Want) to show how Victorian society must be forced and scared into redemption with supernatural ideas as they would be more likely to believe in them rather than believe in how inefficient they are in terms of tackling poverty and the lack of responsibility they feel towards it. Dickens also shows how even religious beliefs (in this case demons/ghosts) were taken more seriously than the poor, and as a result Scrooge does inevitably show his submissiveness and obedience towards this ghost which could be used ironically to prove how they were willing to listen to supernatural rather than actual humans (the poor which they didn't treat as ones).


Marleys ghost: nothing can "make amends for one life’s opportunity misused.’’ "made of cash boxes, keys, deeds”
Dickens presents Marleys ghost to Scrooge to remind him of the consequences he will face if he does not change his miser and misanthrope-like behavior towards the poor and society as a whole. Dickens emphasizes how Scrooge will be imprisoned by his selfishness as he will views "cashboxes" (wealth) as something crucial and as a priority over being filled with virtue and goodness. Dickens also exposes how his "deeds" (wrongdoings, neglectfulness) will haunt him with a purgatory that Marley is similarly enduring. Dickens highlights how the poor have had their opportunities ripped off of them with low wages and neglect from the rich - resulting in them being forced to work and being exploited/"misused".


QUOTES for REDEMPTION:
"make amends for one life's opportunity being misused"
"cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment" "why to a poor ones most"
"I fear you more than any spectre i have seen"

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"Many thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts, sir." // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "come back with him in 5 minutes and i'll give u half-a-crown"


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"

QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



good luck ^^ PLEASEEE make sure u do past papers regularly and get them marked by an english teacher !! DO. PAST. PAPERS 😁ALR BYE
Omg thank you soo muchhh this is soo nice of u
Original post by naevillera
hey guys im leaving my eng lit notes here for if u want to get a grade 7-8. I was one mark off an 8, i dont care enough to get it remarked LMAO but hopefully this can help yr 11's 😁


MACBETH
themes:
ambition
supernatural
fate
violence
morality

intro act1: the witches meet macbeth and their first prophecies are made.

rising action act2: macbeth kills king duncan, macbeth is controlled by lady macbeth.

climax act3: macbeth is king, banquo is murdered, fleance escapes, macduff and malcolm go to england.

falling action act4: macbeth goes to witches, macduff family is murdered, malcolm and macduff plan invasion (turn grief into anger)

catastrophe act5: Malcolm and macduff invade Scotland, Malcolm becomes king, lady macbeth and macbeth die.

ambition
social context: The king is closer to God than anyone else in society, and he was chosen by god. Thus, obeying the king was more than a national duty, it became a religious duty. Shakespeare may have been likely to display Lady Macbeth as ambitious and raging, a masculine trait, to make the readers at that time understand the impact that a change in the order of natural being had on the divine right of kings, as she became an illegitimate queen.

supernatural
social context:
many people in elizabethan times believed in the presence of the supernatural and blamed illnesses or unexplained deaths on it. perhaps shakespeare portrays the supernatural in a negative light to emphasise its true viciousness and fit with what society thought about it. "fair is foul foul is fair" "fenny snake" engaging in the supernatural led to a distortion in the divine rights of kings.

guilt
social context:
the natural chain of being made it easy for lady Macbeth to feel guilty about killing King Duncan as her enthronement was illegitimate as she was not an heir/not chosen by god/unnatural queen. this is shown when lady Macbeth drastically suffers from hallucinations. Macbeth felt no guilt in terms of not being able securing his throne at first but later is overtaken by guilt and commits immoral acts, turns to the supernatural instead of turning to God for forgiveness- Shakespeare reminds the audience that regicide is an unforgivable sin, and Macbeth was aware of this. LM convinces him his virtue is too full of ("human kindness")

appearance/reality
shakespeare successfully conveyed the idea of deception through displaying it as a way of life for the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
social context:
In terms of context, readers in Elizabethan era related to this as they had to hide their social, religious and overall views about the monarchy to not get executed or land in danger. "be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide"

fate
social context:
shakespeare successfully conveys the idea of fate through displaying it as something that can be distorted and used for justification to commit immoral acts. In terms of context, the natural chain of being usually justified if the king went against any rule as he was closest to God, giving him the opportunity to commit any act. "if ill" "why..earnest of success"

masculinity/femininity:
Shakespeare successfully conveys the idea that a distortion in Elizabethan societal roles, or the natural chain of being, can create people without self-control or rationality.

quotations:

macbeth: "unseamd from the nave to the chaps" "false face must hide" "we will proceed no further"
lady macbeth: "was the hope drunk" "pluckd my nipple" "take my milk for gall"
banquo: "restrain me from these cursed thoughts" "my noble partner"
king duncan: "his virtue will plead like angels"
"so meek" "brave macbeth"
macduff: "all my pretty ones" "tyrant" "show thy face"






"macbeth does murder sleep"- guilt
"false face must hide"- guilt
"we will proceed no further"-guilt

"take my milk for gall"- ambition
"when u durst to do it, then u were a man"- ambition
"unsex me here"-ambition
"restrain me in the cursed thoughts"-ambition
"false face must hide.."-ambition
"dashd the brains out"-ambition
"pluckd my nipple"-ambition
"as hounds and greyhounds" - ambition

"his virtue will plead like angels"-power
"so meek" - power
"all my pretty ones?"-power

"that which u are my thoughts cannot transpose" - loyalty
"brave macbeth" -loyalty
"loyalty i owe"-loyalty
"Your patience so predominant in your nature" -loyalty

language analysis

Ambition: thesis
Shakespeare presents ambition as something that can overtake and blind you to morality.

Shakespeare develops this idea through Macbeth, by displaying how his high ambition caused him to lose control and endlessly kill people.

Shakespeare employs this idea through Lady Macbeth, by showing how her ambition to become queen caused her to turn to the supernatural (this was seen as a major issue as it was seen as a sin to engage in the supernatural/unnatural during Shakespearean time).
Ambition also caused her to commit suicide after endlessly lying and repressing her worries about King Duncans murder- it drove her insane.

Key scenes for Ambition:
" take my milk for gall" if u were under the influence of yellow bile you would become violent resentful raging spiteful ambitious.
Macbeth Act 1.
"To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus" - Macbeth
Macbeth finds being king meaningless if he cannot be king without being safe. Giving into his ambition has not given him peace whatsoever. He feels even more anxious and paranoid. (guilt)



Supernatural:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the supernatural through a range of characters that have had a tremendous effect on the protagonists Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
key characters:
(the witches, banquos ghost, dagger, Macbeth/lady Macbeth's downfall)

key scenes for supernatural:
"is this a dagger i see before me?" act 2
"fair is foul foul is fair" act 1 scene 1
"thy gory locks at me" (act 3)
"take my milk for gall"
*thunder and lightning* act 1 scene 1

is this a dagger i see before me?--
Macbeth is finally convinced to kill King Duncan after hallucinating a dagger, floating and covered in blood. The supernatural convinced him to reach his ultimate decision after contemplating the murder. This is because the hallucination was the final thing that drove Macbeth to committing the murder as it is the last thing he sees before killing the king.
*thunder and lightning* (stage directions) are highly effective. It sets the atmosphere and foreshadows the tragedies within this play that are about to be chaotic and significant just like the weather. The supernatural is shown to be powerful as they impact the weather of the play, signifying that they will also impact the characters.





fate:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the theme of fate through a range of characters who all lead different lives - causing them to have different fates. Shakespeare reveals how their fates are disturbed by the supernatural and ones who choose to engage with it, but also those who decide to distort the divine rights of kings.

characters used: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, banquo, king duncan



Macbeth: "To be thus is nothing,
But to be safely thus" "Know Banquo was your enemy"
Macbeth is willing to change his fate and distort God's will in order to claim his throne. He thinks its useless to let fate (banquo/ children having a claim to the throne) exist and feels an urge to change it. He continuously changes his fate but now also the divive rights of kings by attempting to murder the heirs. He even tries to manipulate "the murderers" into thinking that Banquo was the Kings enemy, therefore they would undoubtely obey the kings commands. However macbeth fails to kill the heir Fleance, showing how macbeth is not powerful enough as his power to change fate is limited - he can only take away life but he cannot change gods will.


Lady Macbeth: "fate and metaphysical aid..(seem to want u to have the crown)"
Lady macbeth justifies her immoral actions by stating that fate and "metaphysical" (supernatural) want him to have the crown. She truly believes that the supernatural provide them with true prophecies and are linked to his faith. She associates it with fate, revealing that she uses it as a guide and something she confides in.


King Duncan: "rejoicing" "greatness" // After macbeth gets the prophecies, he tells his wife that he wants to be "rejoicing"/ celebrating the announcement of his claim to the throne and claims it is "greatness". This contrasts to his further view on the king he called "so meek", which showed that he did not fear the king or his position, and perhaps even thought that he could be a greater king.


morality
thesis: Shakespeare presents does theme of morality through showing how a lack of morality creates a distortion in society as christian values are not being met, therefore this leads to a disruption in the natural order of being/divine rights of kings which structure society.

quotes: "so meek" "we have scorched the snake not killed it" "be the innocent flower but be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide" "dashd the brains out"

AN INSPECTOR CALLS

an inspector calls
themes:
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] older vs younger generation
- [x] social responsibility
- [x] - [x] gender
- [x] - [x] - [x] class



STRUCTURE OF AN INSPECTOR CALLS
- simple narrative structure
- beginning, complex plot, climax, end
- sequences of revelations - how everyone affected eva smith & their secrets
- play continues in the same place, has one main aim, play ends in less than 24 hrs
- highly realistic (therefore engaging)
- ends with Priestly's main message in the play- social responsibility.

act 1 : engagement party, inspector arrives, Birling & sheila questioned
act 2: gerald and Mrs birling questioned
act 3. eric questioned, Inspector final speech, false identity and final end.
each act ends with the inspector

act1: sheila mocks Gerald for thinking he can deceive the inspector by lying. Inspector enters with "well?"
act2: inspector holds up a hand to stop sheila and mrs birling argument about eric's possible involvement in the Eva Smith case.
act3: ends with a cyclical structure (in the same place with everyone in the room as the inspector leaves)

the play ends on a cliffhanger - signifying the chaos and turmoil that is about to enter.
the readers are more likely to discuss the ending- which also means that they will talk about the play as a whole and its idea throughout the whole play.




quotations:


"we're respectable citizens not criminals" - class (gerald)
"you couldnt have done anything else" - (gerald)
"shed lived very economically on what id allowed her" - gender/responsibility (gerald)
"everything's alright now sheila what about this ring"

"hes giving us the rope"- social responsibility (sheila)
"now i feel really engaged" - class (sheila)
"very pleased with life" - class (sheila)
"it was my own fault" - class (sheila)
"it frightens me the way u talk"
"You mustn’t try to build up a wall between us and that girl"


"she was giving herself ridiculous airs" - class (mrs birling)
"i was perfectly justified" - social responsibility (mrs birling)
"a rather cold woman" - (mrs birling)
"there must be some mistake" - (mrs birling)
"no, he only showed it to me" - (evas pic) (mrs birling)


"like bees in a hive" - class (mr birling)
"who here will suffer more than i do" - social responsibility / class (mr birling)
"it would be very awkward, wouldnt it?" (referring to a responsible society) - (mr birling)
"the whole story's just a lot of moonshine" (foolish talk) mr birling

"he couldve kept her on instead of throwing out" -social responsibility/class (eric)
"cant blame her" - class (eric)
"why shouldnt they try for higher wages" - class (eric)
"i was a bit squiffy" - class (eric)
"it frightens me too" "i agree with her"


"lively, goodlooking girl" - class (eva smith)
"like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" - class (eva smith)
"but there are millions and millions of eva smiths"- responsibility (eva smith)


"we are members of one body" - inspector goole
"fire blood and anguish" - inspector goole
"cutting through massively" - inspector goole
"its better to ask for the earth than to take it" - inspector goole



social responsibility:
thesis:
Priestly presents social responsibility as vital for creating an inclusive society. He portrays the lack of social responsibility to be a result of the upperclass neglecting the lower classes out of idleness (new poor law 1834). Priestly shows his compassion for the lower class through showing a few of their struggles through the character Eva smith.
characters used: eva smith/sheila birling/mrs birling

eva smith: "lively good-looking girl"
lively: acknowledgeable, noticeable, he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he still did not has empathy to consider her as an actual person with purpose other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

sheila: "hes giving us the rope so that we"ll hang ourselves"
Sheila shows understanding that the inspector is solely here to help them acknowledge their wrongdoings and impact they had on Eva smiths life. He forces them to face the truth, so that their guilt will be a form of consequence.

mrs birling: "she was giving herself ridiculous airs"
Mrs birling thinks that eva smith presenting herself as the wife of an upperclass man was "ridiculous". This shows that she thought lowerclass having any title or prestige is impossible and additionally mocks her with the assertive tone she carries throughout speaking about eva "i didn't like her manner".

Edwardian attitudes:
There was a huge social divide. Your job, wealth, education and name tied to your tier in society. The lower class usually worked for the ruling class, for little pay. However these gentry and wealthy did not examine the system as it benefited them and lived a life of leisure. The Edwardian reader would've most likely initially brushed off these subconscious prejudicial attitudes - like being hypercritical on lower class, and viewing them as equal and naturally differentiating them, because of the social barrier created between them.

Older vs. Younger generation
thesis: Priestly presents the differences between the older and younger generation as constantly clashing with each others morals resulting in the lower class being viewed as idle and inferior by the older generation and are pitied by the younger generation. Priestly shows how the younger generation have the ability to change their future, especially those who descent from wealthy and prestige backgrounds.
characters used: MR BIRLING, MRS BIRLING, SHEILA BIRLING, ERIC BIRLING, EVA SMITH

Mr birling: "you hysterical young fool - get back or i"ll mr birling calls eric a "fool" while ironically acting violently and angrily - like a fool. Priestly shows how little the upperclass reflect on themselves and are completely oblivious to their behaviour. Ironically enough, the upperclass claim that the lowerclass are uneducated and even idle at times. But priestly reveals their true ignorance through a perfect example - Mr Birling - a rich businessman.

Mrs birling : "i was perfectly justified" in refusing eva to be given assistance. She prioritises her feelings over important and crucial issues surrounding the lowerclass. She doesnt understand the impact of her actions nor that she misused her position as a charity owner. She completely dismisses any negatives that came out of her decisions. The upperclass knows best.


Sheila Birling: "it was my own fault"- Sheila acknowledges how her actions have affected Eva's situation and potentially could've led to her suicide. She knows that she has control over her actions and that nothing influenced her to act in a callous way towards eva other than herself.

Eric Birling: "He could. He could have kept her on instead of throwing her out" "tough luck" Eric essentially mocks mr birling for "throwing" eva "out" when she protested for higher wages instead of acknowledging the actual reasons for the protests - the lowerclass were underpaid neglected and overlooked. Eric sees what happens to the lowerclass and the unfortunate situations they are forced to face.

Edwardian Attitudes: For over a thousand years, the wealthy viewed themselves as a race apart. Their power, wealth, status and political standing made every servant in England tend to the needs of their masters. The divide in the classes expanded, and the lower class were doomed to live a life of hard work and prejudice while the rich lived a life of extravagance.


gender
thesis: Priestly presents the theme of gender in An Inspector Calls through revealing how it affected the lower class, particularly women. He reveals how lower class women were threatened by the prejudices that ideas and attitudes carried within gender in Edwardian era.

characters used: eva smith, sheila Birling, Mrs Birling


Eva smith: "she was a lively good-looking girl" (description by birling)
Eva Smith: he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he chose to forget all of her qualities when she went on strike and spoke up about her mistreatment. He dismisses all of it without a doubt. This shows he still does not have the understanding to consider her as a valuable and ACTUAL person. He cannot fathom that she has rights and thoughts of her own which she chooses to express. Therefore he associates womens values with their looks. He truly doesnt think of her as anything other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

Sheila Birling: "very pleased with life"
women who were financially secured in Edwardian era lived a life of leisure and comfortably. It made them usually vain, and inconsiderate - Sheila causes Eva to be sacked from her job because of her misunderstood actions. Priestly shows how rich women were mainly oblivious to this because they usually were not employed since their husbands would provide for them, and women in general were not expected to be employed after being married. However, it could be said that most of women in Edwardian Era who were not part of the lowerclass, refused to acknowledge hardships of them and wanted to enjoy their leisure.


Mrs Birling: "a rather cold woman"
Priestly presents Mrs Birling as coldhearted and cruel to contrast it with Sheila Birling who seems rather unknowledgeable and oblivious towards lower-class's conditions which were perhaps even hidden by the idea that the system was a "tradition" that kept order. However Mrs Birling, who is a lot older, is enlightened on this but refuses to acknowledge the lower class. The fact that she is a wealthy owner of her own charity, and married to a businessman reveals the power and titles she carries. But it also reveals how she has the power to help the lower class but dismisses Eva Smith, despite being aware of the conditions that the lower class -in particular women- lived in.

Priestly shows the cruel and unlawful attitudes towards lower class women, and how the wealthy need to be forcefully educated on their ignorance to help society develop as a whole.

Class
thesis:
Priestly presents the theme of Class through a range of characters from different social and economic backgrounds. Priestly reveals the power behind the class system and how the "upperclass" abuses their power continuously.

characters used: Mr birling, Mrs Birling, Gerald

Mr birling: "like bees in a hive - community and all that nonsense" Priestly presents Mr Birling through showing how he doesnt believe in a society where everyone is equal (like bees in a hive) and he also thinks that an equal society without hierarchy would be chaotic, messy and unstable (like bees in a hive). He thinks its "nonsense" and genuinely doesnt even consider it as something that could be real.

Mrs birling: "like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" Priestly presents Mrs Birling as ignorant and presumptuous. Mrs Birling is certain of her assumptions about Eva Smith, but Priestly ironically exposes that Mrs Birling is aware of the conditions and difficulties that the lower class face. Yet, upperclass like her continue to dismiss their issues and choose to behave superior since they are financially secured.


Gerald: "we're respectable citizens and not criminals" - Priestly reveals how Gerald believes that since he and the Birling Family are from privileged backgrounds with high social status, they cannot be considered to be criminals. Priestly reveals what Gerald is concerned about - what he is referred as. A criminal is looked down upon therefore he does not associate with them, or similarly, the lowerclass.


social/historical context:

During Edwardian era, the class system was set up and heavily enforced. The working class were seen as responsible for their poverty and "consequently" perceived as idle and inferior. They were given low income
and their state (and poverty as whole) was neglected. they were segregated

Women in Edwardian society were very regarded as second-class citizens. They had less rights than men, were expected to abide by different social rules like marriage, couldnt vote , so were unable to influence or change laws that discriminated against them.
This reminds the audience (who is hearing this in 1945 when women had already gotten the rights to vote in 1918) of the inhumane and demeaning treatment that women received - similarly to the working class/lower class. It couldve helped the edwardian readers understanding as they have lived through times where women had similar inferiorities like the poor.

Women were seen as a family’s possession, to be groomed for marriage, wealthy, have and raise children, run a household, not much changed from the Medieval perception of women. what a woman could or would do was based on whether she was married. poor women would often resort to prostitution due to the extreme low wages.

men were the breadwinners and the main source of income for the family. they were responsible for them and made the decisions. men were allowed to have affairs/ it was normal. men had many opportunities for work. their wages were higher. this would resort to the readers at first defending mr Birling and Gerald

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

a christmas carol essay plan

IDEAS:
- [x] - [x] - [x] CHARITY
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- [x] - [x] GREED
- [x] - [x] - [x] POVERTY
- [x] - [x] - [x] REDEMPTION
THE SUPERNATURAL
characters: scrooge, tiny tim, belle, fezziwig, fred, charity collectors, marleys ghost, ghost of christmas past, ghost of christmas present, ghost of christmas yet to come.


Charity:
thesis - Dickens displays the theme of charity through a range of characters that were affected by poverty in Victorian era. Dickens reveals to his readers how important being charitable is and how much it affects the poor. Dickens warns to his readers that if the rich do not become charitable, the cycle of poverty will continue.
(characters used: Scrooge, Fezziwig, Charity collectors)

Scrooge - Dickens reveals the theme of charity through the protagonist Scrooge. Dickens develops his character by making him greedy and selfish in the beginning of the novella (Stave 1 , charity collectors) and showing how his redemption led him to becoming a charitable person. (Stave 5 scrooge gives a child money and increases his workers's salary) Dickens uses scrooge as a representation of the rich to prove to his readers that the rich have the ability to become charitable and giving.

Mr Fezziwig -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through Mr. Fezziwig using his authority with kindness towards his workers and charitable manner. Dickens uses this character to show how Scrooge begins to realise that he has not followed Fezziwig's example of being in power (stave 2). Dickens uses him to show his readers that even though he is a person with status and power, he profits with kindness, generosity, and affection for his employees. Fezziwig is a symbolizes the
common values and civilized society which was taken away by the economic disturbance of the 1800's.

Charity collectors -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through the charity collectors asking the protagonist Scrooge to donate to the poor. Dickens utilises them to display the behaviour that should be seen during Christmas. Dickens presents them to show to his readers the contrast in "christmas spirit" between Scrooge and the charity collectors, to educate his readers about how important charity is during Christmas as it can reveal a persons values.

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"why to a poor one most?" "because it needs it most"
"thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts" // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig



SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of social responsibility through a range of characters that illustrate the struggles that the poor and lower class have to face because of the lack of duty that the rich feel for them.
Dickens employs ideas of social responsibility to convey the impact that a lack but also a gain of social consciousness can lead to either doom or eternal happiness.
characters used: (scrooge, fred,
the cratchits family)


scrooge: dickens utilises Scrooge's development with the idea that social responsibility is crucial for the rich to create within themselves. he presents scrooge as selfish and ignorant "decrease the surplus population" to contrast it later in the play with him showing understanding of the lower class and their conditions "im about to raise ur salary" "ill give u a shilling/and ill give u half a crown"

fred: dickens utilises fred's behaviour and hope towards the upperclass/rich's wrongdoings to highlight how important acts of social responsibility are to the poor and how they infact do have an understanding of its impact on others. fred has hope for scrooge and is determined to help him change throughout the play (stave 3 "i mean to give him the same chance every year" "i pity him")

the Cratchits family: dickens utilises the Cratchits family to reveal the struggles that poor were facing and were hidden by the rich. dickens shows how they are able to contain social responsibility as they have lived in a society that has completely neglected them of having any contribution by labeling them as idle and dangerous. This is why the Cratchits family feels blessed for every single thing in their life which makes them feel responsible to make sure that everyone around them is given the same treatment. (god bless us everyone! //stave 3
monstrous collar "nearly choked him")


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "i'll give u half-a-crown"


GREED
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of Greed through a range of characters, and employs the protagonist Scrooge, who is overtaken by his desperation to stay wealthy and urge to keep all his gain to himself. Dickens exposes how the bourgeoisie, otherwise known to be represented by Scrooge, choose to be continuously greedy out of their idleness and lack of empathy towards the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Fred, Belle.


Scrooge: "i cannot afford to make idle people merry" - Dickens reveals how Scrooge thinks that the poor are "idle" and that he cannot "afford" to make them happy. This is ironic as the poor in Victorian Age were put in a cycle of poverty due to the people that were too selfish to help them through charities or raising their pay. Dickens use of dramatic irony is effective here as his victorian audience is reminded of the cruel and callous attitude that most people had towards the poor at the time.

Fred: "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?"
Dickens utilises Fred as a foil to scrooge. Fred states "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" to Scrooge. Knowing that Fred and Scrooge represent the poor and bourgeoisie, Dickens reveals how even after the poor in Victorian Age were put into workhouses, were abandoned and were given low pay, they remained obedient and held no grudges as they had no wealth - therefore no power to change their lives. However the rich continued to look down upon the poor and even mistreat them because of their status in society.


Belle: "until the master-passion Gain, engrosses you"
Belle states how Scrooge used to have noble aspirations, for example becoming like Fezziwig , but chose to let his desire for financial gain overtake him to the point where he loses not only his virtue but also his relationship with Belle. Dickens uses "master passion" to describe how Scrooge views "gain" - he idolises it and sees it as his main priority and a goal. Scrooge is blinded by it and cannot understand that it caused him to become greedy to others, however Belle is aware that it has led him to neglecting everything that surrounds him - perhaps just like the bourgeoisie abandoning the poor for their own satisfaction and comfort.


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"


Poverty
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of poverty through a range of characters who are exposed to the tragedies, truths and consequences of poverty. Dickens reveals to his readers how each character's perception of poverty and what they do to help break the cycle of it, is significant as it directly affects the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Ignorance and Want, Peter cratchit


Scrooge: "Why to a poor one most?" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"
Dickens reveals how Scrooge, otherwise known to be representing the bourgeoisie, is confused on why the poor is need of provision and care. Scrooge is shown to be doubting the "Ghost of Christmas present", which reinforces how ignorant and stubborn the bourgeoisie are, and how resilient majority of them were to understanding/acknowledging their tragic conditions. However it could be foreshadowing the character that Scrooge develops into, which is someone who's charitable and eager to find ways to help the poor. Perhaps this is Dickens showing that poverty must be tackled through educating the powerful members of society, as they are the ones who are responsible for the conditions of the poor.



Ignorance and Want: "a stale and shrivelled hand" "pinched" "twisted" "pulled them into shreds" "most of all beware this boy" "Doom" "monsters" "horrible and dread" "words choked themselves" "a lie of such enormous magnitude"
Dickens represents the bourgeoisie as a "stale and shrivelled hand" that "pinched..twisted..pulled" Ignorance and Want into "shreds". The bourgeaisie's description and actions effectively reinforces how inhumane they were against the poor, and how they were even inflicting difficulty into their lives recklessly, not caring what the consequence of that would be. Ignorance and want are described as "monsters" and "dread". This shows how the poor were known to be feared, disregarded, and overall seen as inhuman. These words show how the poor were not only seen as inferior but also got labeled as something to be feared of. This couldve been used ironically to show how they were actually perhaps afraid of the consequences the rich have to accept as their own, rather than the appearances of the poor (which theyre also the cause of).

Peter Cratchit: "monstrous shirt"
"although his collars nearly choked him"

Dickens uses Peter Cratchit to present the cycle of poverty is continuous and ends up trapping children into it. Peter is shown to be wearing a "monstrous (work) shirt". This directly shows that Peter, who is a poor child, is too young to be working as the shirt does not fit him. It reminds the Victorian reader that poverty takes away the childhood of the poor, and their innocence while also forcing them to mature. It creates empathy for the reader, making them care more for the poor as children, who are vulnerable, are involved. Furthermore, the collars "choking" him shows that the bourgeoisie forces the poor to take on the consequences made by them after neglecting the poor into workhouses and low-paying jobs, and making poor children work.


QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



Redemption:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of redemption through showing how any ignorant, selfish or miser individual can receive the opportunity of redemption by going through a period of self reflection. Dickens enlightens his readers upon how the rich refusing to acknowledge their lack of responsibility will lead to a miserable, invaluable life wherein they did not change their behavior towards the poor which will result in to their doom.

scrooge: "why to a poor one most?" (because it needs it most) "cramp these peoples opportunies of innocent enjoyment"
Scrooge starts his transformation and redemption through questioning why the rich should stop profiting off of the exploitation of the poor- which included them contributing to the persistent low wages and neglecting the poor which led to them being perceived as idle. Dickens exposes how the rich benefited from the poor through showing Scrooge's awareness of this which emphasizes how he was still at the first stage of his exposure to the poor's conditions - perhaps because of how the rich hid the poor's conditions within industries like workhouses.

Ghost Of Christmas Yet To Come: "I fear you more than any spectre I have seen"
Scrooge's last stage of his redemption is filled with terrorizing him with fear and reality (as this he sees Ignorance and Want) to show how Victorian society must be forced and scared into redemption with supernatural ideas as they would be more likely to believe in them rather than believe in how inefficient they are in terms of tackling poverty and the lack of responsibility they feel towards it. Dickens also shows how even religious beliefs (in this case demons/ghosts) were taken more seriously than the poor, and as a result Scrooge does inevitably show his submissiveness and obedience towards this ghost which could be used ironically to prove how they were willing to listen to supernatural rather than actual humans (the poor which they didn't treat as ones).


Marleys ghost: nothing can "make amends for one life’s opportunity misused.’’ "made of cash boxes, keys, deeds”
Dickens presents Marleys ghost to Scrooge to remind him of the consequences he will face if he does not change his miser and misanthrope-like behavior towards the poor and society as a whole. Dickens emphasizes how Scrooge will be imprisoned by his selfishness as he will views "cashboxes" (wealth) as something crucial and as a priority over being filled with virtue and goodness. Dickens also exposes how his "deeds" (wrongdoings, neglectfulness) will haunt him with a purgatory that Marley is similarly enduring. Dickens highlights how the poor have had their opportunities ripped off of them with low wages and neglect from the rich - resulting in them being forced to work and being exploited/"misused".


QUOTES for REDEMPTION:
"make amends for one life's opportunity being misused"
"cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment" "why to a poor ones most"
"I fear you more than any spectre i have seen"

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"Many thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts, sir." // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "come back with him in 5 minutes and i'll give u half-a-crown"


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"

QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



good luck ^^ PLEASEEE make sure u do past papers regularly and get them marked by an english teacher !! DO. PAST. PAPERS 😁ALR BYE

this is incredible!
Reply 5
Original post by naevillera
hey guys im leaving my eng lit notes here for if u want to get a grade 7-8. I was one mark off an 8, i dont care enough to get it remarked LMAO but hopefully this can help yr 11's 😁


MACBETH
themes:
ambition
supernatural
fate
violence
morality

intro act1: the witches meet macbeth and their first prophecies are made.

rising action act2: macbeth kills king duncan, macbeth is controlled by lady macbeth.

climax act3: macbeth is king, banquo is murdered, fleance escapes, macduff and malcolm go to england.

falling action act4: macbeth goes to witches, macduff family is murdered, malcolm and macduff plan invasion (turn grief into anger)

catastrophe act5: Malcolm and macduff invade Scotland, Malcolm becomes king, lady macbeth and macbeth die.

ambition
social context: The king is closer to God than anyone else in society, and he was chosen by god. Thus, obeying the king was more than a national duty, it became a religious duty. Shakespeare may have been likely to display Lady Macbeth as ambitious and raging, a masculine trait, to make the readers at that time understand the impact that a change in the order of natural being had on the divine right of kings, as she became an illegitimate queen.

supernatural
social context:
many people in elizabethan times believed in the presence of the supernatural and blamed illnesses or unexplained deaths on it. perhaps shakespeare portrays the supernatural in a negative light to emphasise its true viciousness and fit with what society thought about it. "fair is foul foul is fair" "fenny snake" engaging in the supernatural led to a distortion in the divine rights of kings.

guilt
social context:
the natural chain of being made it easy for lady Macbeth to feel guilty about killing King Duncan as her enthronement was illegitimate as she was not an heir/not chosen by god/unnatural queen. this is shown when lady Macbeth drastically suffers from hallucinations. Macbeth felt no guilt in terms of not being able securing his throne at first but later is overtaken by guilt and commits immoral acts, turns to the supernatural instead of turning to God for forgiveness- Shakespeare reminds the audience that regicide is an unforgivable sin, and Macbeth was aware of this. LM convinces him his virtue is too full of ("human kindness")

appearance/reality
shakespeare successfully conveyed the idea of deception through displaying it as a way of life for the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
social context:
In terms of context, readers in Elizabethan era related to this as they had to hide their social, religious and overall views about the monarchy to not get executed or land in danger. "be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide"

fate
social context:
shakespeare successfully conveys the idea of fate through displaying it as something that can be distorted and used for justification to commit immoral acts. In terms of context, the natural chain of being usually justified if the king went against any rule as he was closest to God, giving him the opportunity to commit any act. "if ill" "why..earnest of success"

masculinity/femininity:
Shakespeare successfully conveys the idea that a distortion in Elizabethan societal roles, or the natural chain of being, can create people without self-control or rationality.

quotations:

macbeth: "unseamd from the nave to the chaps" "false face must hide" "we will proceed no further"
lady macbeth: "was the hope drunk" "pluckd my nipple" "take my milk for gall"
banquo: "restrain me from these cursed thoughts" "my noble partner"
king duncan: "his virtue will plead like angels"
"so meek" "brave macbeth"
macduff: "all my pretty ones" "tyrant" "show thy face"






"macbeth does murder sleep"- guilt
"false face must hide"- guilt
"we will proceed no further"-guilt

"take my milk for gall"- ambition
"when u durst to do it, then u were a man"- ambition
"unsex me here"-ambition
"restrain me in the cursed thoughts"-ambition
"false face must hide.."-ambition
"dashd the brains out"-ambition
"pluckd my nipple"-ambition
"as hounds and greyhounds" - ambition

"his virtue will plead like angels"-power
"so meek" - power
"all my pretty ones?"-power

"that which u are my thoughts cannot transpose" - loyalty
"brave macbeth" -loyalty
"loyalty i owe"-loyalty
"Your patience so predominant in your nature" -loyalty

language analysis

Ambition: thesis
Shakespeare presents ambition as something that can overtake and blind you to morality.

Shakespeare develops this idea through Macbeth, by displaying how his high ambition caused him to lose control and endlessly kill people.

Shakespeare employs this idea through Lady Macbeth, by showing how her ambition to become queen caused her to turn to the supernatural (this was seen as a major issue as it was seen as a sin to engage in the supernatural/unnatural during Shakespearean time).
Ambition also caused her to commit suicide after endlessly lying and repressing her worries about King Duncans murder- it drove her insane.

Key scenes for Ambition:
" take my milk for gall" if u were under the influence of yellow bile you would become violent resentful raging spiteful ambitious.
Macbeth Act 1.
"To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus" - Macbeth
Macbeth finds being king meaningless if he cannot be king without being safe. Giving into his ambition has not given him peace whatsoever. He feels even more anxious and paranoid. (guilt)



Supernatural:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the supernatural through a range of characters that have had a tremendous effect on the protagonists Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
key characters:
(the witches, banquos ghost, dagger, Macbeth/lady Macbeth's downfall)

key scenes for supernatural:
"is this a dagger i see before me?" act 2
"fair is foul foul is fair" act 1 scene 1
"thy gory locks at me" (act 3)
"take my milk for gall"
*thunder and lightning* act 1 scene 1

is this a dagger i see before me?--
Macbeth is finally convinced to kill King Duncan after hallucinating a dagger, floating and covered in blood. The supernatural convinced him to reach his ultimate decision after contemplating the murder. This is because the hallucination was the final thing that drove Macbeth to committing the murder as it is the last thing he sees before killing the king.
*thunder and lightning* (stage directions) are highly effective. It sets the atmosphere and foreshadows the tragedies within this play that are about to be chaotic and significant just like the weather. The supernatural is shown to be powerful as they impact the weather of the play, signifying that they will also impact the characters.





fate:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the theme of fate through a range of characters who all lead different lives - causing them to have different fates. Shakespeare reveals how their fates are disturbed by the supernatural and ones who choose to engage with it, but also those who decide to distort the divine rights of kings.

characters used: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, banquo, king duncan



Macbeth: "To be thus is nothing,
But to be safely thus" "Know Banquo was your enemy"
Macbeth is willing to change his fate and distort God's will in order to claim his throne. He thinks its useless to let fate (banquo/ children having a claim to the throne) exist and feels an urge to change it. He continuously changes his fate but now also the divive rights of kings by attempting to murder the heirs. He even tries to manipulate "the murderers" into thinking that Banquo was the Kings enemy, therefore they would undoubtely obey the kings commands. However macbeth fails to kill the heir Fleance, showing how macbeth is not powerful enough as his power to change fate is limited - he can only take away life but he cannot change gods will.


Lady Macbeth: "fate and metaphysical aid..(seem to want u to have the crown)"
Lady macbeth justifies her immoral actions by stating that fate and "metaphysical" (supernatural) want him to have the crown. She truly believes that the supernatural provide them with true prophecies and are linked to his faith. She associates it with fate, revealing that she uses it as a guide and something she confides in.


King Duncan: "rejoicing" "greatness" // After macbeth gets the prophecies, he tells his wife that he wants to be "rejoicing"/ celebrating the announcement of his claim to the throne and claims it is "greatness". This contrasts to his further view on the king he called "so meek", which showed that he did not fear the king or his position, and perhaps even thought that he could be a greater king.


morality
thesis: Shakespeare presents does theme of morality through showing how a lack of morality creates a distortion in society as christian values are not being met, therefore this leads to a disruption in the natural order of being/divine rights of kings which structure society.

quotes: "so meek" "we have scorched the snake not killed it" "be the innocent flower but be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide" "dashd the brains out"

AN INSPECTOR CALLS

an inspector calls
themes:
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] older vs younger generation
- [x] social responsibility
- [x] - [x] gender
- [x] - [x] - [x] class



STRUCTURE OF AN INSPECTOR CALLS
- simple narrative structure
- beginning, complex plot, climax, end
- sequences of revelations - how everyone affected eva smith & their secrets
- play continues in the same place, has one main aim, play ends in less than 24 hrs
- highly realistic (therefore engaging)
- ends with Priestly's main message in the play- social responsibility.

act 1 : engagement party, inspector arrives, Birling & sheila questioned
act 2: gerald and Mrs birling questioned
act 3. eric questioned, Inspector final speech, false identity and final end.
each act ends with the inspector

act1: sheila mocks Gerald for thinking he can deceive the inspector by lying. Inspector enters with "well?"
act2: inspector holds up a hand to stop sheila and mrs birling argument about eric's possible involvement in the Eva Smith case.
act3: ends with a cyclical structure (in the same place with everyone in the room as the inspector leaves)

the play ends on a cliffhanger - signifying the chaos and turmoil that is about to enter.
the readers are more likely to discuss the ending- which also means that they will talk about the play as a whole and its idea throughout the whole play.




quotations:


"we're respectable citizens not criminals" - class (gerald)
"you couldnt have done anything else" - (gerald)
"shed lived very economically on what id allowed her" - gender/responsibility (gerald)
"everything's alright now sheila what about this ring"

"hes giving us the rope"- social responsibility (sheila)
"now i feel really engaged" - class (sheila)
"very pleased with life" - class (sheila)
"it was my own fault" - class (sheila)
"it frightens me the way u talk"
"You mustn’t try to build up a wall between us and that girl"


"she was giving herself ridiculous airs" - class (mrs birling)
"i was perfectly justified" - social responsibility (mrs birling)
"a rather cold woman" - (mrs birling)
"there must be some mistake" - (mrs birling)
"no, he only showed it to me" - (evas pic) (mrs birling)


"like bees in a hive" - class (mr birling)
"who here will suffer more than i do" - social responsibility / class (mr birling)
"it would be very awkward, wouldnt it?" (referring to a responsible society) - (mr birling)
"the whole story's just a lot of moonshine" (foolish talk) mr birling

"he couldve kept her on instead of throwing out" -social responsibility/class (eric)
"cant blame her" - class (eric)
"why shouldnt they try for higher wages" - class (eric)
"i was a bit squiffy" - class (eric)
"it frightens me too" "i agree with her"


"lively, goodlooking girl" - class (eva smith)
"like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" - class (eva smith)
"but there are millions and millions of eva smiths"- responsibility (eva smith)


"we are members of one body" - inspector goole
"fire blood and anguish" - inspector goole
"cutting through massively" - inspector goole
"its better to ask for the earth than to take it" - inspector goole



social responsibility:
thesis:
Priestly presents social responsibility as vital for creating an inclusive society. He portrays the lack of social responsibility to be a result of the upperclass neglecting the lower classes out of idleness (new poor law 1834). Priestly shows his compassion for the lower class through showing a few of their struggles through the character Eva smith.
characters used: eva smith/sheila birling/mrs birling

eva smith: "lively good-looking girl"
lively: acknowledgeable, noticeable, he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he still did not has empathy to consider her as an actual person with purpose other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

sheila: "hes giving us the rope so that we"ll hang ourselves"
Sheila shows understanding that the inspector is solely here to help them acknowledge their wrongdoings and impact they had on Eva smiths life. He forces them to face the truth, so that their guilt will be a form of consequence.

mrs birling: "she was giving herself ridiculous airs"
Mrs birling thinks that eva smith presenting herself as the wife of an upperclass man was "ridiculous". This shows that she thought lowerclass having any title or prestige is impossible and additionally mocks her with the assertive tone she carries throughout speaking about eva "i didn't like her manner".

Edwardian attitudes:
There was a huge social divide. Your job, wealth, education and name tied to your tier in society. The lower class usually worked for the ruling class, for little pay. However these gentry and wealthy did not examine the system as it benefited them and lived a life of leisure. The Edwardian reader would've most likely initially brushed off these subconscious prejudicial attitudes - like being hypercritical on lower class, and viewing them as equal and naturally differentiating them, because of the social barrier created between them.

Older vs. Younger generation
thesis: Priestly presents the differences between the older and younger generation as constantly clashing with each others morals resulting in the lower class being viewed as idle and inferior by the older generation and are pitied by the younger generation. Priestly shows how the younger generation have the ability to change their future, especially those who descent from wealthy and prestige backgrounds.
characters used: MR BIRLING, MRS BIRLING, SHEILA BIRLING, ERIC BIRLING, EVA SMITH

Mr birling: "you hysterical young fool - get back or i"ll mr birling calls eric a "fool" while ironically acting violently and angrily - like a fool. Priestly shows how little the upperclass reflect on themselves and are completely oblivious to their behaviour. Ironically enough, the upperclass claim that the lowerclass are uneducated and even idle at times. But priestly reveals their true ignorance through a perfect example - Mr Birling - a rich businessman.

Mrs birling : "i was perfectly justified" in refusing eva to be given assistance. She prioritises her feelings over important and crucial issues surrounding the lowerclass. She doesnt understand the impact of her actions nor that she misused her position as a charity owner. She completely dismisses any negatives that came out of her decisions. The upperclass knows best.


Sheila Birling: "it was my own fault"- Sheila acknowledges how her actions have affected Eva's situation and potentially could've led to her suicide. She knows that she has control over her actions and that nothing influenced her to act in a callous way towards eva other than herself.

Eric Birling: "He could. He could have kept her on instead of throwing her out" "tough luck" Eric essentially mocks mr birling for "throwing" eva "out" when she protested for higher wages instead of acknowledging the actual reasons for the protests - the lowerclass were underpaid neglected and overlooked. Eric sees what happens to the lowerclass and the unfortunate situations they are forced to face.

Edwardian Attitudes: For over a thousand years, the wealthy viewed themselves as a race apart. Their power, wealth, status and political standing made every servant in England tend to the needs of their masters. The divide in the classes expanded, and the lower class were doomed to live a life of hard work and prejudice while the rich lived a life of extravagance.


gender
thesis: Priestly presents the theme of gender in An Inspector Calls through revealing how it affected the lower class, particularly women. He reveals how lower class women were threatened by the prejudices that ideas and attitudes carried within gender in Edwardian era.

characters used: eva smith, sheila Birling, Mrs Birling


Eva smith: "she was a lively good-looking girl" (description by birling)
Eva Smith: he acknowledges her presence, she was memorable yet he chose to forget all of her qualities when she went on strike and spoke up about her mistreatment. He dismisses all of it without a doubt. This shows he still does not have the understanding to consider her as a valuable and ACTUAL person. He cannot fathom that she has rights and thoughts of her own which she chooses to express. Therefore he associates womens values with their looks. He truly doesnt think of her as anything other than her being a "goodlooking girl".

Sheila Birling: "very pleased with life"
women who were financially secured in Edwardian era lived a life of leisure and comfortably. It made them usually vain, and inconsiderate - Sheila causes Eva to be sacked from her job because of her misunderstood actions. Priestly shows how rich women were mainly oblivious to this because they usually were not employed since their husbands would provide for them, and women in general were not expected to be employed after being married. However, it could be said that most of women in Edwardian Era who were not part of the lowerclass, refused to acknowledge hardships of them and wanted to enjoy their leisure.


Mrs Birling: "a rather cold woman"
Priestly presents Mrs Birling as coldhearted and cruel to contrast it with Sheila Birling who seems rather unknowledgeable and oblivious towards lower-class's conditions which were perhaps even hidden by the idea that the system was a "tradition" that kept order. However Mrs Birling, who is a lot older, is enlightened on this but refuses to acknowledge the lower class. The fact that she is a wealthy owner of her own charity, and married to a businessman reveals the power and titles she carries. But it also reveals how she has the power to help the lower class but dismisses Eva Smith, despite being aware of the conditions that the lower class -in particular women- lived in.

Priestly shows the cruel and unlawful attitudes towards lower class women, and how the wealthy need to be forcefully educated on their ignorance to help society develop as a whole.

Class
thesis:
Priestly presents the theme of Class through a range of characters from different social and economic backgrounds. Priestly reveals the power behind the class system and how the "upperclass" abuses their power continuously.

characters used: Mr birling, Mrs Birling, Gerald

Mr birling: "like bees in a hive - community and all that nonsense" Priestly presents Mr Birling through showing how he doesnt believe in a society where everyone is equal (like bees in a hive) and he also thinks that an equal society without hierarchy would be chaotic, messy and unstable (like bees in a hive). He thinks its "nonsense" and genuinely doesnt even consider it as something that could be real.

Mrs birling: "like a girl of that sort would ever refuse money" Priestly presents Mrs Birling as ignorant and presumptuous. Mrs Birling is certain of her assumptions about Eva Smith, but Priestly ironically exposes that Mrs Birling is aware of the conditions and difficulties that the lower class face. Yet, upperclass like her continue to dismiss their issues and choose to behave superior since they are financially secured.


Gerald: "we're respectable citizens and not criminals" - Priestly reveals how Gerald believes that since he and the Birling Family are from privileged backgrounds with high social status, they cannot be considered to be criminals. Priestly reveals what Gerald is concerned about - what he is referred as. A criminal is looked down upon therefore he does not associate with them, or similarly, the lowerclass.


social/historical context:

During Edwardian era, the class system was set up and heavily enforced. The working class were seen as responsible for their poverty and "consequently" perceived as idle and inferior. They were given low income
and their state (and poverty as whole) was neglected. they were segregated

Women in Edwardian society were very regarded as second-class citizens. They had less rights than men, were expected to abide by different social rules like marriage, couldnt vote , so were unable to influence or change laws that discriminated against them.
This reminds the audience (who is hearing this in 1945 when women had already gotten the rights to vote in 1918) of the inhumane and demeaning treatment that women received - similarly to the working class/lower class. It couldve helped the edwardian readers understanding as they have lived through times where women had similar inferiorities like the poor.

Women were seen as a family’s possession, to be groomed for marriage, wealthy, have and raise children, run a household, not much changed from the Medieval perception of women. what a woman could or would do was based on whether she was married. poor women would often resort to prostitution due to the extreme low wages.

men were the breadwinners and the main source of income for the family. they were responsible for them and made the decisions. men were allowed to have affairs/ it was normal. men had many opportunities for work. their wages were higher. this would resort to the readers at first defending mr Birling and Gerald

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

a christmas carol essay plan

IDEAS:
- [x] - [x] - [x] CHARITY
- [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] - [x] SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- [x] - [x] GREED
- [x] - [x] - [x] POVERTY
- [x] - [x] - [x] REDEMPTION
THE SUPERNATURAL
characters: scrooge, tiny tim, belle, fezziwig, fred, charity collectors, marleys ghost, ghost of christmas past, ghost of christmas present, ghost of christmas yet to come.


Charity:
thesis - Dickens displays the theme of charity through a range of characters that were affected by poverty in Victorian era. Dickens reveals to his readers how important being charitable is and how much it affects the poor. Dickens warns to his readers that if the rich do not become charitable, the cycle of poverty will continue.
(characters used: Scrooge, Fezziwig, Charity collectors)

Scrooge - Dickens reveals the theme of charity through the protagonist Scrooge. Dickens develops his character by making him greedy and selfish in the beginning of the novella (Stave 1 , charity collectors) and showing how his redemption led him to becoming a charitable person. (Stave 5 scrooge gives a child money and increases his workers's salary) Dickens uses scrooge as a representation of the rich to prove to his readers that the rich have the ability to become charitable and giving.

Mr Fezziwig -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through Mr. Fezziwig using his authority with kindness towards his workers and charitable manner. Dickens uses this character to show how Scrooge begins to realise that he has not followed Fezziwig's example of being in power (stave 2). Dickens uses him to show his readers that even though he is a person with status and power, he profits with kindness, generosity, and affection for his employees. Fezziwig is a symbolizes the
common values and civilized society which was taken away by the economic disturbance of the 1800's.

Charity collectors -
Dickens presents the theme of charity through the charity collectors asking the protagonist Scrooge to donate to the poor. Dickens utilises them to display the behaviour that should be seen during Christmas. Dickens presents them to show to his readers the contrast in "christmas spirit" between Scrooge and the charity collectors, to educate his readers about how important charity is during Christmas as it can reveal a persons values.

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"why to a poor one most?" "because it needs it most"
"thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts" // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig



SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of social responsibility through a range of characters that illustrate the struggles that the poor and lower class have to face because of the lack of duty that the rich feel for them.
Dickens employs ideas of social responsibility to convey the impact that a lack but also a gain of social consciousness can lead to either doom or eternal happiness.
characters used: (scrooge, fred,
the cratchits family)


scrooge: dickens utilises Scrooge's development with the idea that social responsibility is crucial for the rich to create within themselves. he presents scrooge as selfish and ignorant "decrease the surplus population" to contrast it later in the play with him showing understanding of the lower class and their conditions "im about to raise ur salary" "ill give u a shilling/and ill give u half a crown"

fred: dickens utilises fred's behaviour and hope towards the upperclass/rich's wrongdoings to highlight how important acts of social responsibility are to the poor and how they infact do have an understanding of its impact on others. fred has hope for scrooge and is determined to help him change throughout the play (stave 3 "i mean to give him the same chance every year" "i pity him")

the Cratchits family: dickens utilises the Cratchits family to reveal the struggles that poor were facing and were hidden by the rich. dickens shows how they are able to contain social responsibility as they have lived in a society that has completely neglected them of having any contribution by labeling them as idle and dangerous. This is why the Cratchits family feels blessed for every single thing in their life which makes them feel responsible to make sure that everyone around them is given the same treatment. (god bless us everyone! //stave 3
monstrous collar "nearly choked him")


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "i'll give u half-a-crown"


GREED
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of Greed through a range of characters, and employs the protagonist Scrooge, who is overtaken by his desperation to stay wealthy and urge to keep all his gain to himself. Dickens exposes how the bourgeoisie, otherwise known to be represented by Scrooge, choose to be continuously greedy out of their idleness and lack of empathy towards the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Fred, Belle.


Scrooge: "i cannot afford to make idle people merry" - Dickens reveals how Scrooge thinks that the poor are "idle" and that he cannot "afford" to make them happy. This is ironic as the poor in Victorian Age were put in a cycle of poverty due to the people that were too selfish to help them through charities or raising their pay. Dickens use of dramatic irony is effective here as his victorian audience is reminded of the cruel and callous attitude that most people had towards the poor at the time.

Fred: "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?"
Dickens utilises Fred as a foil to scrooge. Fred states "I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" to Scrooge. Knowing that Fred and Scrooge represent the poor and bourgeoisie, Dickens reveals how even after the poor in Victorian Age were put into workhouses, were abandoned and were given low pay, they remained obedient and held no grudges as they had no wealth - therefore no power to change their lives. However the rich continued to look down upon the poor and even mistreat them because of their status in society.


Belle: "until the master-passion Gain, engrosses you"
Belle states how Scrooge used to have noble aspirations, for example becoming like Fezziwig , but chose to let his desire for financial gain overtake him to the point where he loses not only his virtue but also his relationship with Belle. Dickens uses "master passion" to describe how Scrooge views "gain" - he idolises it and sees it as his main priority and a goal. Scrooge is blinded by it and cannot understand that it caused him to become greedy to others, however Belle is aware that it has led him to neglecting everything that surrounds him - perhaps just like the bourgeoisie abandoning the poor for their own satisfaction and comfort.


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"


Poverty
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of poverty through a range of characters who are exposed to the tragedies, truths and consequences of poverty. Dickens reveals to his readers how each character's perception of poverty and what they do to help break the cycle of it, is significant as it directly affects the poor.

characters used: Scrooge, Ignorance and Want, Peter cratchit


Scrooge: "Why to a poor one most?" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"
Dickens reveals how Scrooge, otherwise known to be representing the bourgeoisie, is confused on why the poor is need of provision and care. Scrooge is shown to be doubting the "Ghost of Christmas present", which reinforces how ignorant and stubborn the bourgeoisie are, and how resilient majority of them were to understanding/acknowledging their tragic conditions. However it could be foreshadowing the character that Scrooge develops into, which is someone who's charitable and eager to find ways to help the poor. Perhaps this is Dickens showing that poverty must be tackled through educating the powerful members of society, as they are the ones who are responsible for the conditions of the poor.



Ignorance and Want: "a stale and shrivelled hand" "pinched" "twisted" "pulled them into shreds" "most of all beware this boy" "Doom" "monsters" "horrible and dread" "words choked themselves" "a lie of such enormous magnitude"
Dickens represents the bourgeoisie as a "stale and shrivelled hand" that "pinched..twisted..pulled" Ignorance and Want into "shreds". The bourgeaisie's description and actions effectively reinforces how inhumane they were against the poor, and how they were even inflicting difficulty into their lives recklessly, not caring what the consequence of that would be. Ignorance and want are described as "monsters" and "dread". This shows how the poor were known to be feared, disregarded, and overall seen as inhuman. These words show how the poor were not only seen as inferior but also got labeled as something to be feared of. This couldve been used ironically to show how they were actually perhaps afraid of the consequences the rich have to accept as their own, rather than the appearances of the poor (which theyre also the cause of).

Peter Cratchit: "monstrous shirt"
"although his collars nearly choked him"

Dickens uses Peter Cratchit to present the cycle of poverty is continuous and ends up trapping children into it. Peter is shown to be wearing a "monstrous (work) shirt". This directly shows that Peter, who is a poor child, is too young to be working as the shirt does not fit him. It reminds the Victorian reader that poverty takes away the childhood of the poor, and their innocence while also forcing them to mature. It creates empathy for the reader, making them care more for the poor as children, who are vulnerable, are involved. Furthermore, the collars "choking" him shows that the bourgeoisie forces the poor to take on the consequences made by them after neglecting the poor into workhouses and low-paying jobs, and making poor children work.


QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



Redemption:
thesis: Dickens presents the theme of redemption through showing how any ignorant, selfish or miser individual can receive the opportunity of redemption by going through a period of self reflection. Dickens enlightens his readers upon how the rich refusing to acknowledge their lack of responsibility will lead to a miserable, invaluable life wherein they did not change their behavior towards the poor which will result in to their doom.

scrooge: "why to a poor one most?" (because it needs it most) "cramp these peoples opportunies of innocent enjoyment"
Scrooge starts his transformation and redemption through questioning why the rich should stop profiting off of the exploitation of the poor- which included them contributing to the persistent low wages and neglecting the poor which led to them being perceived as idle. Dickens exposes how the rich benefited from the poor through showing Scrooge's awareness of this which emphasizes how he was still at the first stage of his exposure to the poor's conditions - perhaps because of how the rich hid the poor's conditions within industries like workhouses.

Ghost Of Christmas Yet To Come: "I fear you more than any spectre I have seen"
Scrooge's last stage of his redemption is filled with terrorizing him with fear and reality (as this he sees Ignorance and Want) to show how Victorian society must be forced and scared into redemption with supernatural ideas as they would be more likely to believe in them rather than believe in how inefficient they are in terms of tackling poverty and the lack of responsibility they feel towards it. Dickens also shows how even religious beliefs (in this case demons/ghosts) were taken more seriously than the poor, and as a result Scrooge does inevitably show his submissiveness and obedience towards this ghost which could be used ironically to prove how they were willing to listen to supernatural rather than actual humans (the poor which they didn't treat as ones).


Marleys ghost: nothing can "make amends for one life’s opportunity misused.’’ "made of cash boxes, keys, deeds”
Dickens presents Marleys ghost to Scrooge to remind him of the consequences he will face if he does not change his miser and misanthrope-like behavior towards the poor and society as a whole. Dickens emphasizes how Scrooge will be imprisoned by his selfishness as he will views "cashboxes" (wealth) as something crucial and as a priority over being filled with virtue and goodness. Dickens also exposes how his "deeds" (wrongdoings, neglectfulness) will haunt him with a purgatory that Marley is similarly enduring. Dickens highlights how the poor have had their opportunities ripped off of them with low wages and neglect from the rich - resulting in them being forced to work and being exploited/"misused".


QUOTES for REDEMPTION:
"make amends for one life's opportunity being misused"
"cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment" "why to a poor ones most"
"I fear you more than any spectre i have seen"

quotes for CHARITY
"decrease the surplus population" // scrooge
"Many thousands are in want of common necessaries; hundreds of thousands are in want of common comforts, sir." // charity collectors
"In came the housemaid.. baker ..cook.. milkman" - Fezziwig


QUOTES for SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: "i mean to give him the same chance every year..I pity him" "decrease the surplus population" "come back with him in 5 minutes and i'll give u half-a-crown"


QUOTES for GREED: "Until the master passion Gain engrosses you" I want nothing from you, I ask nothing from you, why cannot we be friends?" "I cannot afford to make idle people merry"

QUOTES for POVERTY: "a stale and shrivelled hand.. pulled/pinched/twisted them into shreds" "monstrous shirt..although his collars nearly choked him" "Why to a poor ones most" "cramp these peoples opportunities of innocent enjoyment"



good luck ^^ PLEASEEE make sure u do past papers regularly and get them marked by an english teacher !! DO. PAST. PAPERS 😁ALR BYE

Thank you so much for this, these are all the play's and books im learning and these are some very good notes, and its definitely gonna save me some time😊
Reply 6
Original post by naevillera
hey guys im leaving my eng lit notes here for if u want to get a grade 7-8. I was one mark off an 8, i dont care enough to get it remarked LMAO but hopefully this can help yr 11's 😁
MACBETH
themes:
ambition
supernatural
fate
violence
morality
intro act1: the witches meet macbeth and their first prophecies are made.
rising action act2: macbeth kills king duncan, macbeth is controlled by lady macbeth.
climax act3: macbeth is king, banquo is murdered, fleance escapes, macduff and malcolm go to england.
falling action act4: macbeth goes to witches, macduff family is murdered, malcolm and macduff plan invasion (turn grief into anger)
catastrophe act5: Malcolm and macduff invade Scotland, Malcolm becomes king, lady macbeth and macbeth die.
ambition
social context: The king is closer to God than anyone else in society, and he was chosen by god. Thus, obeying the king was more than a national duty, it became a religious duty. Shakespeare may have been likely to display Lady Macbeth as ambitious and raging, a masculine trait, to make the readers at that time understand the impact that a change in the order of natural being had on the divine right of kings, as she became an illegitimate queen.
supernatural
social context:
many people in elizabethan times believed in the presence of the supernatural and blamed illnesses or unexplained deaths on it. perhaps shakespeare portrays the supernatural in a negative light to emphasise its true viciousness and fit with what society thought about it. "fair is foul foul is fair" "fenny snake" engaging in the supernatural led to a distortion in the divine rights of kings.
guilt
social context:
the natural chain of being made it easy for lady Macbeth to feel guilty about killing King Duncan as her enthronement was illegitimate as she was not an heir/not chosen by god/unnatural queen. this is shown when lady Macbeth drastically suffers from hallucinations. Macbeth felt no guilt in terms of not being able securing his throne at first but later is overtaken by guilt and commits immoral acts, turns to the supernatural instead of turning to God for forgiveness- Shakespeare reminds the audience that regicide is an unforgivable sin, and Macbeth was aware of this. LM convinces him his virtue is too full of ("human kindness")
appearance/reality
shakespeare successfully conveyed the idea of deception through displaying it as a way of life for the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
social context:
In terms of context, readers in Elizabethan era related to this as they had to hide their social, religious and overall views about the monarchy to not get executed or land in danger. "be the serpent underneath it" "false face must hide"
fate
social context:
shakespeare successfully conveys the idea of fate through displaying it as something that can be distorted and used for justification to commit immoral acts. In terms of context, the natural chain of being usually justified if the king went against any rule as he was closest to God, giving him the opportunity to commit any act. "if ill" "why..earnest of success"
masculinity/femininity:
Shakespeare successfully conveys the idea that a distortion in Elizabethan societal roles, or the natural chain of being, can create people without self-control or rationality.
quotations:
macbeth: "unseamd from the nave to the chaps" "false face must hide" "we will proceed no further"
lady macbeth: "was the hope drunk" "pluckd my nipple" "take my milk for gall"
banquo: "restrain me from these cursed thoughts" "my noble partner"
king duncan: "his virtue will plead like angels"
"so meek" "brave macbeth"
macduff: "all my pretty ones" "tyrant" "show thy face"
"macbeth does murder sleep"- guilt
"false face must hide"- guilt
"we will proceed no further"-guilt
"take my milk for gall"- ambition
"when u durst to do it, then u were a man"- ambition
"unsex me here"-ambition
"restrain me in the cursed thoughts"-ambition
"false face must hide.."-ambition
"dashd the brains out"-ambition
"pluckd my nipple"-ambition
"as hounds and greyhounds" - ambition
"his virtue will plead like angels"-power
"so meek" - power
"all my pretty ones?"-power
"that which u are my thoughts cannot transpose" - loyalty
"brave macbeth" -loyalty
"loyalty i owe"-loyalty
"Your patience so predominant in your nature" -loyalty
language analysis
Ambition: thesis
Shakespeare presents ambition as something that can overtake and blind you to morality.
Shakespeare develops this idea through Macbeth, by displaying how his high ambition caused him to lose control and endlessly kill people.
Shakespeare employs this idea through Lady Macbeth, by showing how her ambition to become queen caused her to turn to the supernatural (this was seen as a major issue as it was seen as a sin to engage in the supernatural/unnatural during Shakespearean time).
Ambition also caused her to commit suicide after endlessly lying and repressing her worries about King Duncans murder- it drove her insane.
Key scenes for Ambition:
" take my milk for gall" if u were under the influence of yellow bile you would become violent resentful raging spiteful ambitious.
Macbeth Act 1.
"To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus" - Macbeth
Macbeth finds being king meaningless if he cannot be king without being safe. Giving into his ambition has not given him peace whatsoever. He feels even more anxious and paranoid. (guilt)
Supernatural:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the supernatural through a range of characters that have had a tremendous effect on the protagonists Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
key characters:
(the witches, banquos ghost, dagger, Macbeth/lady Macbeth's downfall)
key scenes for supernatural:
"is this a dagger i see before me?" act 2
"fair is foul foul is fair" act 1 scene 1
"thy gory locks at me" (act 3)
"take my milk for gall"
*thunder and lightning* act 1 scene 1
is this a dagger i see before me?--
Macbeth is finally convinced to kill King Duncan after hallucinating a dagger, floating and covered in blood. The supernatural convinced him to reach his ultimate decision after contemplating the murder. This is because the hallucination was the final thing that drove Macbeth to committing the murder as it is the last thing he sees before killing the king.
*thunder and lightning* (stage directions) are highly effective. It sets the atmosphere and foreshadows the tragedies within this play that are about to be chaotic and significant just like the weather. The supernatural is shown to be powerful as they impact the weather of the play, signifying that they will also impact the characters.
fate:
thesis:
Shakespeare presents the theme of fate through a range of characters who all lead different lives - causing them to have different fates. Shakespeare reveals how their fates are disturbed by the supernatural and ones who choose to engage with it, but also those who decide to distort the divine rights of kings.
characters used: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, banquo, king duncan
Macbeth: "To be thus is nothing,
But to be safely thus" "Know Banquo was your enemy"
Macbeth is willing to change his fate and distort God's will in order to claim his throne. He thinks its useless to let