In terms of obscenity and sexuality, you might be interested in The Picture of Dorian Grey by Oscar Wilde? Counterculture is a little trickier for the 19th century - maybe something about pastoralism as a reaction against industrialisation (George Eliot may be of interest here, Silas Marner especially comes to mind)? Or the Bohemians - perhaps Goblin Market by Christina Rossetti? Maybe you'd be interested in Chartism, which appears as a theme in Mary Barton by Elizabeth Gaskell. Or something like News from Nowhere by William Morris with socialist themes (not as popular though so you may find it more difficultt to seek out literary criticism)? Les Miserables by Victor Hugo has interesting themes but is also very long, especially if you're already thinking of doing A Little Life. The Bloomsbury group would have been ideal but unfortunately they're out of your time period.