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OCR Biology F212 Revision [3rd June 2013] (Now Closed) Watch

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    (Original post by simonb451)
    I hate the immune system and vaccinations as in every past paper i do i get it wrong. And it comes up a lot, so frustrating.
    What about it do you struggle with?
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    Could someone describe the structure of collagen please


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    (Original post by cloud19)
    Could someone describe the structure of collagen please


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    Collagen is a fibrous protein. It's made up of 3 polypeptide chains wound around each other. Each of these polypeptides is made up of around about 1000 amino acids. The 3 chains are held together by hydrogen bonding .

    Each of these collagen molecules (i.e. the three chains wrapped around each other) is connected to another collagen molecule (another molecule of 3 polypeptides). These are connected by covalent bonds or cross links. These cross links are staggered along the collagen, resulting in a collagen fibril.

    Hope that helps
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    (Original post by Sherlockedd)
    Collagen is a fibrous protein. It's made up of 3 polypeptide chains wound around each other. Each of these polypeptides is made up of around about 1000 amino acids. The 3 chains are held together by hydrogen bonding .

    Each of these collagen molecules (i.e. the three chains wrapped around each other) is connected to another collagen molecule (another molecule of 3 polypeptides). These are connected by covalent bonds or cross links. These cross links are staggered along the collagen, resulting in a collagen fibril.

    Hope that helps
    It does help thanks a lot


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    I got a question, basically I got x2 exams before this exam (f211 and another exam).
    I have made all my notes for f212 however I haven't read them yet, it is possible to start reading them say on 21st may ( every day after that *5 hours per day)
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    (Original post by cloud19)
    It does help thanks a lot


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    It's not covalent bonds, it's hydrogen bonds I swear..?


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    (Original post by jamesmact)
    It's not covalent bonds, it's hydrogen bonds I swear..?


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    My notes saaaaay covalent, between each collagen molecule :/
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    (Original post by Sherlockedd)
    Collagen is a fibrous protein. It's made up of 3 polypeptide chains wound around each other. Each of these polypeptides is made up of around about 1000 amino acids. The 3 chains are held together by hydrogen bonding .

    Each of these collagen molecules (i.e. the three chains wrapped around each other) is connected to another collagen molecule (another molecule of 3 polypeptides). These are connected by covalent bonds or cross links. These cross links are staggered along the collagen, resulting in a collagen fibril.

    Hope that helps
    (Original post by Sherlockedd)
    My notes saaaaay covalent, between each collagen molecule :/
    (Original post by jamesmact)
    It's not covalent bonds, it's hydrogen bonds I swear..?


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    Hydrogen bonds is correct.
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Hydrogen bonds is correct.
    Hydrogen bonds form between the 3 polypeptide chains within the collagen molecule... The covalent bonds form between seperate collagen molecules (these covalent bonds are called cross links) The covalent bonds increase the strength of the molecule and result in the formation of collagen fibrils
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    can someone explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny?
    I think its:
    closely related species are placed into groups together. Classification used to be based on observable features but now classification takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species. We can now place species into the correct group by knowing their evolutionary relationships.
    Is this right or do I need something else? It's really hard to know what they are looking for with the end couple of topics of the exam, the ocr purple book is really wordy!
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    (Original post by Sherlockedd)
    My notes saaaaay covalent, between each collagen molecule :/
    Hi want to revise chapter 1 long time
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    (Original post by zoep23)
    can someone explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny?
    I think its:
    closely related species are placed into groups together. Classification used to be based on observable features but now classification takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species. We can now place species into the correct group by knowing their evolutionary relationships.
    Is this right or do I need something else? It's really hard to know what they are looking for with the end couple of topics of the exam, the ocr purple book is really wordy!
    Classification is just placing living organisms into groups based on similarities and differences. Phylogeny is study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms, it's about how closely related things are e.g how closely related we are to gorillas. If they are very closely related then they're placed in to a group of other similar organisms... So because of phylogeny we could classify them. If that makes sense?

    and yes classification only used to be based on observable features before but now it's about genetics, biochemistry, physiology etc too (so not just evolutionary relationships)

    Hope that helps


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    Can anyone tell me the difference between chronic bronchitis and emphysema? They both mention inflammation and I am confused. Are they the same form of disease but emphysema is the more serious?

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    (Original post by wndms)
    Can anyone tell me the difference between chronic bronchitis and emphysema? They both mention inflammation and I am confused. Are they the same form of disease but emphysema is the more serious?

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    Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation of the lungs, caused by the damage to cilia and the overproduction of mucus by goblet cells, because when mucus accumulates in the lungs bacteria can thrive and cause infections.
    Emphysema normally comes after because phagocytes move to the area to fight the infection but they produce elastase enzymes that break down the elastin in alveolar walls, reducing surface area / preventing recoil. It's basically caused by the destruction of the alveolar walls whereas bronchitis is just the inflammation.


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    (Original post by coco_madem0iselle)
    Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation of the lungs, caused by the damage to cilia and the overproduction of mucus by goblet cells, because when mucus accumulates in the lungs bacteria can thrive and cause infections.
    Emphysema normally comes after because phagocytes move to the area to fight the infection but they produce elastase enzymes that break down the elastin in alveolar walls, reducing surface area / preventing recoil. It's basically caused by the destruction of the alveolar walls whereas bronchitis is just the inflammation.


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    Thank you so much

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    (Original post by wndms)
    Thank you so much

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    Excessive coughing due to the bronchitis also damages elastic tissue in the alveoli


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    Does anyone know why high blood pressure can increase the deposition of cholesterol :L?


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    Omg. I haven't even looked at this stuff yet.
    Not good D:
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    (Original post by cloud19)
    Does anyone know why high blood pressure can increase the deposition of cholesterol :L?


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    High blood pressure is caused by excessive salt in the diet, known as hypertension. High blood pressure doesn't directly cause the deposition of cholesterol but it damages the endothelium of the artery wall. This in turn results in LDL's collecting at the site of the damage, cholesterol and other fatty substances are deposited under the endothelium of the artery wall in the process of atherosclerosis. This then forms an atheroma, which eventually becomes a hardened plaque, narrowing the size of the lumen and reducing blood flow etc

    I hope this helps, its a very grey area really considering everything pretty much links to atherosclerosis anyone is open to correct me if im wrong as i'm not 100% sure
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    (Original post by zoep23)
    High blood pressure is caused by excessive salt in the diet, known as hypertension. High blood pressure doesn't directly cause the deposition of cholesterol but it damages the endothelium of the artery wall. This in turn results in LDL's collecting at the site of the damage, cholesterol and other fatty substances are deposited under the endothelium of the artery wall in the process of atherosclerosis. This then forms an atheroma, which eventually becomes a hardened plaque, narrowing the size of the lumen and reducing blood flow etc

    I hope this helps, its a very grey area really considering everything pretty much links to atherosclerosis anyone is open to correct me if im wrong as i'm not 100% sure
    Other things cause high blood pressure, but the hypertension causes damaging to the endothelial lining of the arteries, which allows atherosclerosis to happen more easily


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