Turn on thread page Beta

Edexcel: From kaiser to fuhrer 1900-1945, his03/d exam friday 10th june 2016 watch

    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    Hi guys,

    This is the 2016 official thread for Edexcel HIS03/D exam, specifically the course titled "from Kaiser to Fuhrer 1900-45". We can use it to share resources and ask questions relating to the exam, the content, essay technique, recision etc.

    I couldn't find a threat so thought I would make one as it was really helpful last year for AS and threads have been helpful in my other subjects this year too!

    A bit of information on the exam:

    Title: From Kaiser to Fuhrer 1900-1945
    Code: HIS03/D
    Date and time: Friday 10th June 2016 @ 9.00AM
    Duration: 2 hours
    Layout: We will answer two questions in total - one from Section A and one from Section B. It's so important to understand the exam and what's required of us, so here's a little bit to get you going...

    Section A: This is worth 30 marks so I reccomended you spend around 50 minutes answering this question. We will have a choice of two questions in this section. The layout of this Section is very much like the 30 mark questions we got in our unit 1 exam. We will be asked a question and we answer purely on our knowledge, marks come purely from arguing a case with our own knowledge. Of course, this year the content is a bit more complex, so a real understanding is needed! Also, to gain the higher marks, it is important to make links between your paragraphs and don't write them in isolation. An example; if the question was on the greatest threat to Weimar, I may write one paragraph on the Treaty of Versailles, one of the economic disaster, and one on political extremists. It's important to make links between these; the reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versaolles exacerbating the economic threat, and the 'Stab in the Back' myth that came about from the ToV arguably heightened, or have strength to, the threat from the extreme right.
    Section A topics include;
    Kaiser's Germany 1900-1914; look at who had power, was Germany democratic, how did it survive, what were the effects of WW1 etc.

    The democratic experiment 1919-1929; identify the main threats to the Weimar Republic, how did it survive, how stable were the golden years etc.

    Hitler's Rise to Power 1929-1933; explore what it was that made Hitler chancellor - was it due to his skill and the Nazi party? Or did he get lucky as a result of miscalculations of Weimar politicians and external events?

    Germany in wartime 1939-1945: consider how the war effected German morale, what opposition did the Nazis face? How strong was the Nazi economy? Strengths? Weaknesses? Why? What prompted The Final Solution (the holocaust)?

    Section B: This question is worth 40 marks, therefore I advise you spend an hour on it. This is the source-based 'controversy question' - you will have looked at an ongoing historical debate and you get to have your say on things! Like in Section A, there will be a choice of two questions - some of you may have been prepared for just one of them, others may have been prepared for both. You will be given 3 secondary sources that wil come from prominent historians on the controversy you are assessing - it's a good idea to know which historians are the prominent ones as it will be useful to know their wider stance on the debate (remember, the source you get will come from a massive book of theirs! Many people are fooled and think what is written on those few lines in the source are the only things that the historian believes). In this question, it's of paramount of importance that you interrogate the interpretations of the historians, and this is where you use your own knowledge. You're like detectives - you are looking for the evidence to support their claims and if the evidence, in your opinion, doesn't agree with what they are saying then explain why you disagree with their interpretation. Remember, they will always give you at least two sources with different views so you are inevitably going to disagree with someone - it's so important you explain why! Why? Because, unlike last year, the weighting of be marks is slightly different. This year we will get 24 marks for source evaluation and 16 marks for use of our own knowledge (unlike last year where it was 24 marks for own knowledge and 16 marks for source evaluation). And those 16 marks don't come from just throwing in a fact here and there; as always, use your own knowledge to support or oppose an interpretation! (It's quite an exciting concept when you get into it - finally we get to really argue our views agains professional historians!)
    Section B controversy questions include;
    "To what extent was Germany responsible for the outbreak of the First World War?" - many say this is the simpler of the two controversies as the question is very much similar each year. Is Germany to blame? Here, you should be looking at their diplomacy, political desicions, international relationships etc.

    "How popular and efficient were the Nazi Party 1933-1939?" - this question can be approached and asked from different angles. You will notice the question has two parts to it - popularity and efficiency. You will be asked about how popular Nazis were and for this you should focus on the different social groups ie the young, women etc. if it turns out they weren't so popular, what allowed them to stay in power? This brings us onto the second part - efficiency. What caused their 'maintenance of power? Terror? Popularity? Propaganda? Explore the different reasons. Also, how effective was Hitler has a leader in general? Did he take an active role or not? Ian Kershaw's "working toward the fuhrer" theory is good to read up on in relation to this - I will try and find a link to a good article and post it later.

    I hope you understand the exam fully now as that is always the first step to success!

    If anyone has any questions pop them below! We can all help each other get the grade we all need and deserve!

    Let's start off by posting what we studied for AS;
    Unit 1: Stalin's Russia and the Civil Rights Movement
    Unit 2: Henry VIIIs Tudor England
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    Anyone have any A* exemplar essays?
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Zooloo)
    Anyone have any A* exemplar essays?
    I wrote an essay for the question " 'Hitler came to power because of his remarkable talents as a politician'. To what extent do you agree with this". It scored 28/30 - I'm not are if that's an A or A* - I can post it if you want?
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by eddso)
    I wrote an essay for the question " 'Hitler came to power because of his remarkable talents as a politician'. To what extent do you agree with this". It scored 28/30 - I'm not are if that's an A or A* - I can post it if you want?
    Yes please!
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Zooloo)
    Yes please!
    Here you go If you have any questions about how to structure/write this essay then feel free to ask
    The transformation in the fortunes of the Nazi party was largely due to Hitler’s skill as a politician. How far do you agree with this statement?
    Spoiler:
    Show
    The Nazi transformation of fortunes can be described in electoral terms, Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor and his creation of adictatorship. Hitler clearly was a talented politician as his recognition ofthe need to make political alliances with strong groups and individualsincreased his chances of appointment as Chancellor, whilst his ability toexploit current situations increased electoral support. However, his ability toexploit situations usually seem to only compliment the situation itself; boththe Communist threat and the Great Depression were strongly decisive inshifting voters to Nazism, and his exploitationof these events were only significant in supporting this. Additionally, theGreat Depression managed to exploit the perceived Communist threat, whichgenerated a fear that was greater than was necessary. This suggests that,Hitler’s political skill was important to an extent, but the Great Depressionwas the most significant force in the transformation of Nazi fortunes.

    Hitler’s political talents can be seen in hisacknowledgement of the need to make political alliances with various groups andindividuals within society in order to improve his credibility when presentedto Hindenburg. Hitler managed to rally support and funding from industrialistsand financers such as Paul Reusch and Kurt von Shroder, who helped createpolitical circumstances for the Nazi takeover. It was at Schoder’s house, forexample, that Hitler and von Papen met to enter into negotiations, symbolicallyshowing the significance of his support housing circumstance and opportunity.Similarly, he managed to gain support from the army; as the army was held inhigh esteem within German society, this was a major symbolic gesture which notonly encouraged the nation to regard the Nazi party highly, but also meant thearmy had strong influence over Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor.Finally, he managed to work closely with Von Papen, meeting with him on many separate occasions as he managed to win Von Papen’s support, who was respectedby Hindeburg and could therefore encourage Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor.This is suggestive that Hitler’s skill and talents in the political intrigue inmaking allies with individuals and groups of society had a huge impact inpushing Hindenburg into a corner so that he would accept Hitler’s chancellorship, indicating Hitler’s political skill did cause thetransformation of Nazi fortunes.

    However, admittedly Hitler recognised the importance ofsupport from these groups, but whether this was actually successfully decisiveis another matter. In the petition sent to Hindeburg to appoint Hitler asChancellor, only 20 businessmen signed it, whilst his speech to 650 businessmenin Dusseldorf in January 1932 failed to impress industrialists as his SocialDarwinistic views towards industry became apparent. As a result, funding frombusinessmen was limited to just a few individuals, clearly showing how, despiterecognising the importance of support from businessmen, Hitler’s politicalskill did not extend to the extent that he could conjure up this support.

    Similarly, undoubtedly his alliance with Von Papen wasincredibly decisive in his appointment as Chancellor, but it is questionable asto whether this is down to Hitler’s political skill or fortune. The politicalrivalry between Von Papen and Von Schleicher opened the doors for Hitler to thepolitical intrigue that emerged, as Von Papen was eager to oppose Schleicher’s undesirable personality and policy. For example, Schleicher’s proposed nationalisation of the Steel industry, and his repeal of Papen’s wage cuts,worried businessmen, whose interests were taken seriously by Papen andHindeburg. Slowly a conservative force surrounded Hindenburg, who were keen toreplace Schelciher with a more acceptable Chancellor – Hitler seemed to be thisacceptable Chancellor they so desired, and they decline in their vote to 196seats in the November 1932 election meant that Hindeburg believed he would beable to be controlled. Clearly, Hitler’s support from the conservative elitewas not as a result of his political skill, but a strong, persuasive and mutualdesire to oust an undesirable Chancellor. Hitler was simply fortunate that hisideals matched those of the powerful and influential elite so that he could beseen as the only acceptable replacement.

    Hitler’s political talents can also be seen in how he managed to exploit situations for his personal political advantage. Just a fewhours after the 1933 Reichstag fire, for example, the SA dug through lists ofCommunists prepared months and years before in the eventuality of a ban on Communism, and 4,000 were arrested altogether, which significantly reduced thepolitical threat of Communism to Nazis, reducing their vote to a mere 12.3%.Additionally, its significance is furthered in its allowing Hitler to pass theDecree for the Protection of People and State, which paved the way for Hitler’sdictatorship as the act would later become known as the Enabling Law. It isdebatable whether or not Hitler had planned the Reichstag fire in order to gainhis desired majority, but either way his political skill is evident in how he eitherresponded and exploited a situation to aid his political needs, to created andinitiated a situation to exploit in order to feed his political needs. Similarly,the Great Depression was exploited by Hitler to his advantage as he used it toappeal to all aspects of society. Many Nazi voters between 1930 and 1933 had amutual lack of faith in the Weimar system; for the middle-classes, for example,the Depression was simply the climax to a seemingly never-ending series ofdisasters from 1918. Hitler was able to exploit this ‘politics of anxiety’,using his oratory skilly in making impassioned speeches against Weimar,promising to “rebuild the economy”, which attracted votes from primarily themiddle-class, but also the mittelstand, working class and farmers. The Naziparty is often referred to as the people’s party, which higlights how the Nazifortunes transformed in electoral terms due to Hitler’s ability to unite thenation through a contempt for Weimar. Clearly, Hitler’s political skill inexploiting situations, planned or unplanned, was crucial in increasingelectoral success as it united the nation through a mutual contempt anddistrust for both Communism and Weimar.

    However, the Great Depression seems to be a stronger causeof the change in Nazi fortunes, which Hitler’s political skill in exploitingsituations only supported on the side. The Great Depression affected allaspects of society; in 1932, 5 major banks collapsed and unemployment hadreached 6.1 million and industrial production had fallen to just 40% of the1929. These had catastrophic financial effects as families struggled to providefor their families and society dissented into laziness. With such financialinstability, naturally people were drawn into extremist promises such as“rebuild the economy”. However, not only was financial instability a decisiveeffect of the depression, but the morass of misery and criminality swayedvoters too. In a society where a man’s prestige was dependent on his job,unemployment destroyed self-respect, whilst causing boredom which transformedinto frustration with the economy, society and democracy. Between 1929 and1932, there was a 24% increase in arrests in Berlin, which highlights theextent of the frustration, whilst a noticeable increase in male and femaleprostitution shocked respectable classes. The frustration and social disunitycaused by the Great Depression meant that Nazism, who were seen as the people’sparty, offering a volksgemeinschaft, economic stability and social securitywere certainly attractive. Indeed, during the ‘Golden Years’, with apparenteconomic, social and political stability, Nazism struggled to win 10 seats, yetas soon as the country dissented into economic chaos, their vote dramaticallyincreased to 230 seats in the space of just two years. Clearly the social andeconomic anarchy that the Great Depression plunged Germany into was an immense,and the stronger, force in changing the fortunes of the Nazism, which wasmerely complimented by Hitler’s political skill.

    Finally, the threat, or perceived threat, from Communismsupported the rise of Nazism dramatically. There was a huge growth in theCommunist party, from having 117,000 members in 1929, to 360,000 in 1932. Thisincrease was particularly frightening to the middle-classes, whose socialsituation thrived off of capitalism; a fear which was heightened due to theclass struggles moving from the workplace into the streets, due to theunemployment. Indeed, ‘committees of the unemployed’, which the party founded,held parades, demonstrations, ‘hunger marches’ and other street-based events onalmost a daily basis, which was a much more explicit, visual and frequentreminder to society of the increasing threat posed by Communism. In July 1931,Victor Klemperer asked ‘Is the government going to fall? Will Hitler follow, orCommunism?”. Clearly it seemedinevitable to German society that only Communism or Nazism could follow thelikely collapse of the current government, which, therefore, shows how thechanging fortunes of the Nazi party was due to Hitler being the only crediblealternative and defender of the immense fear generated by the communist threat.

    However, the rise in Communism can largely be put down tothe Great Depression and the unemployment it created. As Evans notes, however, aCommunist revolution was incredibly unlikely as the party’s members wereprimarily unemployed and in poverty, meaning it was short of resources andphysically weak. Here, it seems that, despite it seeming that the Communistthreat encouraged Nazi support, it was actually the political effects of theGreat Depression in creating a façade of Communist strength, when realisticallythey were weakened, which generated the aforementioned fear, which was greaterthan necessary. This, therefore, decisively turned voters to the onlyalternative – Nazism. One again, thetransformation of the fortunes of the Nazi party has been due to the political effectsof the Great Depression in exploiting and strengthening an existing politicaland social fear to the extent that German people could only see one extremealternative.

    To conclude, Hitler’s political talents are certainlyevident in a number of scenarios which contributed to the changing fortunes ofthe Nazi party. However, the extent of the strength of this talent in relationto the event and context in which this talent was being performed isquestionable. His success in exploiting the Communist threat and the GreatDepression were certainly impressive, but did not match the strength of boththese factors, but loosely complimented them, as they were both individuallydecisive in shaping the mind set of voters anyway. Furthermore, the strength ofthe Communist threat was clearly only perceived, a perception whichmaterialised as a result of the Great Depression. It seems clear that a numberof factors helped the changing fortunes of the Nazi party, but they were allderived from the social, economic and political effects of the GreatDepression, showing how this was the strongest force in increasing support forNazism.
    61BgV�8ݬ>G
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by eddso)
    Here you go If you have any questions about how to structure/write this essay then feel free to ask
    The transformation in the fortunes of the Nazi party was largely due to Hitler’s skill as a politician. How far do you agree with this statement?
    Spoiler:
    Show
    The Nazi transformation of fortunes can be described inelectoral terms, Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor and his creation of adictatorship. Hitler clearly was a talented politician as his recognition ofthe need to make political alliances with strong groups and individualsincreased his chances of appointment as Chancellor, whilst his ability toexploit current situations increased electoral support. However, his ability toexploit situations usually seem to only compliment the situation itself; boththe Communist threat and the Great Depression were strongly decisive inshifting voters to Nazism, and his exploitationof these events were only significant in supporting this. Additionally, theGreat Depression managed to exploit the perceived Communist threat, whichgenerated a fear that was greater than was necessary. This suggests that,Hitler’s political skill was important to an extent, but the Great Depressionwas the most significant force in the transformation of Nazi fortunes.Hitler’s political talents can be seen in hisacknowledgement of the need to make political alliances with various groups andindividuals within society in order to improve his credibility when presentedto Hindenburg. Hitler managed to rally support and funding from industrialistsand financers such as Paul Reusch and Kurt von Shroder, who helped createpolitical circumstances for the Nazi takeover. It was at Schoder’s house, forexample, that Hitler and von Papen met to enter into negotiations, symbolicallyshowing the significance of his support housing circumstance and opportunity.Similarly, he managed to gain support from the army; as the army was held inhigh esteem within German society, this was a major symbolic gesture which notonly encouraged the nation to regard the Nazi party highly, but also meant thearmy had strong influence over Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor.Finally, he managed to work closely with Von Papen, meeting with him on manyseparate occasions as he managed to win Von Papen’s support, who was respectedby Hindeburg and could therefore encourage Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor.This is suggestive that Hitler’s skill and talents in the political intrigue inmaking allies with individuals and groups of society had a huge impact inpushing Hindenburg into a corner so that he would accept Hitler’schancellorship, indicating Hitler’s political skill did cause thetransformation of Nazi fortunes. However, admittedly Hitler recognised the importance ofsupport from these groups, but whether this was actually successfully decisiveis another matter. In the petition sent to Hindeburg to appoint Hitler asChancellor, only 20 businessmen signed it, whilst his speech to 650 businessmenin Dusseldorf in January 1932 failed to impress industrialists as his SocialDarwinistic views towards industry became apparent. As a result, funding frombusinessmen was limited to just a few individuals, clearly showing how, despiterecognising the importance of support from businessmen, Hitler’s politicalskill did not extend to the extent that he could conjure up this support.Similarly, undoubtedly his alliance with Von Papen wasincredibly decisive in his appointment as Chancellor, but it is questionable asto whether this is down to Hitler’s political skill or fortune. The politicalrivalry between Von Papen and Von Schleicher opened the doors for Hitler to thepolitical intrigue that emerged, as Von Papen was eager to oppose Schleicher’sundesirable personality and policy. For example, Schleicher’s proposednationalisation of the Steel industry, and his repeal of Papen’s wage cuts,worried businessmen, whose interests were taken seriously by Papen andHindeburg. Slowly a conservative force surrounded Hindenburg, who were keen toreplace Schelciher with a more acceptable Chancellor – Hitler seemed to be thisacceptable Chancellor they so desired, and they decline in their vote to 196seats in the November 1932 election meant that Hindeburg believed he would beable to be controlled. Clearly, Hitler’s support from the conservative elitewas not as a result of his political skill, but a strong, persuasive and mutualdesire to oust an undesirable Chancellor. Hitler was simply fortunate that hisideals matched those of the powerful and influential elite so that he could beseen as the only acceptable replacement.Hitler’s political talents can also be seen in how hemanaged to exploit situations for his personal political advantage. Just a fewhours after the 1932 Reichstag fire, for example, the SA dug through lists ofCommunists prepared months and years before in the eventuality of a ban onCommunism, and 4,000 were arrested altogether, which significantly reduced thepolitical threat of Communism to Nazis, reducing their vote to a mere 12.3%.Additionally, its significance is furthered in its allowing Hitler to pass theDecree for the Protection of People and State, which paved the way for Hitler’sdictatorship as the act would later become known as the Enabling Law. It isdebatable whether or not Hitler had planned the Reichstag fire in order to gainhis desired majority, but either way his political skill is evident in how he eitherresponded and exploited a situation to aid his political needs, to created andinitiated a situation to exploit in order to feed his political needs. Similarly,the Great Depression was exploited by Hitler to his advantage as he used it toappeal to all aspects of society. Many Nazi voters between 1930 and 1933 had amutual lack of faith in the Weimar system; for the middle-classes, for example,the Depression was simply the climax to a seemingly never-ending series ofdisasters from 1918. Hitler was able to exploit this ‘politics of anxiety’,using his oratory skilly in making impassioned speeches against Weimar,promising to “rebuild the economy”, which attracted votes from primarily themiddle-class, but also the mittelstand, working class and farmers. The Naziparty is often referred to as the people’s party, which higlights how the Nazifortunes transformed in electoral terms due to Hitler’s ability to unite thenation through a contempt for Weimar. Clearly, Hitler’s political skill inexploiting situations, planned or unplanned, was crucial in increasingelectoral success as it united the nation through a mutual contempt anddistrust for both Communism and Weimar.However, the Great Depression seems to be a stronger causeof the change in Nazi fortunes, which Hitler’s political skill in exploitingsituations only supported on the side. The Great Depression affected allaspects of society; in 1932, 5 major banks collapsed and unemployment hadreached 6.1 million and industrial production had fallen to just 40% of the1929. These had catastrophic financial effects as families struggled to providefor their families and society dissented into laziness. With such financialinstability, naturally people were drawn into extremist promises such as“rebuild the economy”. However, not only was financial instability a decisiveeffect of the depression, but the morass of misery and criminality swayedvoters too. In a society where a man’s prestige was dependent on his job,unemployment destroyed self-respect, whilst causing boredom which transformedinto frustration with the economy, society and democracy. Between 1929 and1932, there was a 24% increase in arrests in Berlin, which highlights theextent of the frustration, whilst a noticeable increase in male and femaleprostitution shocked respectable classes. The frustration and social disunitycaused by the Great Depression meant that Nazism, who were seen as the people’sparty, offering a volksgemeinschaft, economic stability and social securitywere certainly attractive. Indeed, during the ‘Golden Years’, with apparenteconomic, social and political stability, Nazism struggled to win 10 seats, yetas soon as the country dissented into economic chaos, their vote dramaticallyincreased to 230 seats in the space of just two years. Clearly the social andeconomic anarchy that the Great Depression plunged Germany into was an immense,and the stronger, force in changing the fortunes of the Nazism, which wasmerely complimented by Hitler’s political skill. Finally, the threat, or perceived threat, from Communismsupported the rise of Nazism dramatically. There was a huge growth in theCommunist party, from having 117,000 members in 1929, to 360,000 in 1932. Thisincrease was particularly frightening to the middle-classes, whose socialsituation thrived off of capitalism; a fear which was heightened due to theclass struggles moving from the workplace into the streets, due to theunemployment. Indeed, ‘committees of the unemployed’, which the party founded,held parades, demonstrations, ‘hunger marches’ and other street-based events onalmost a daily basis, which was a much more explicit, visual and frequentreminder to society of the increasing threat posed by Communism. In July 1931,Victor Klemperer asked ‘Is the government going to fall? Will Hitler follow, orCommunism?”. Clearly it seemedinevitable to German society that only Communism or Nazism could follow thelikely collapse of the current government, which, therefore, shows how thechanging fortunes of the Nazi party was due to Hitler being the only crediblealternative and defender of the immense fear generated by the communist threat.However, the rise in Communism can largely be put down tothe Great Depression and the unemployment it created. As Evans notes, however, aCommunist revolution was incredibly unlikely as the party’s members wereprimarily unemployed and in poverty, meaning it was short of resources andphysically weak. Here, it seems that, despite it seeming that the Communistthreat encouraged Nazi support, it was actually the political effects of theGreat Depression in creating a façade of Communist strength, when realisticallythey were weakened, which generated the aforementioned fear, which was greaterthan necessary. This, therefore, decisively turned voters to the onlyalternative – Nazism. One again, thetransformation of the fortunes of the Nazi party has been due to the political effectsof the Great Depression in exploiting and strengthening an existing politicaland social fear to the extent that German people could only see one extremealternative.To conclude, Hitler’s political talents are certainlyevident in a number of scenarios which contributed to the changing fortunes ofthe Nazi party. However, the extent of the strength of this talent in relationto the event and context in which this talent was being performed isquestionable. His success in exploiting the Communist threat and the GreatDepression were certainly impressive, but did not match the strength of boththese factors, but loosely complimented them, as they were both individuallydecisive in shaping the mind set of voters anyway. Furthermore, the strength ofthe Communist threat was clearly only perceived, a perception whichmaterialised as a result of the Great Depression. It seems clear that a numberof factors helped the changing fortunes of the Nazi party, but they were allderived from the social, economic and political effects of the GreatDepression, showing how this was the strongest force in increasing support forNazism.
    61BgV�8ݬ>G
    THANK YOU!
    not a fan of the space bar though ?
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Zooloo)
    THANK YOU!
    not a fan of the space bar though ?
    That's alright! and haha - I pasted it from Word and posted it then saw that it didn't keep my paragraphs or half my spaces for some reason! I've gone back through it to paragraph it but spacing all the words out again is just long haha sorry!
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Zooloo)
    THANK YOU!
    not a fan of the space bar though ?
    Also, my teachers comments were that it didn't quite reach full marks because of my coverage of the Enabling Law, Reichstab Fire etc. The content for questions relating to Hitler's Rise to Power usually ends at Hitler being appointed Chancellor (stupid as it all links together really but that's how the specification is set out)
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by eddso)
    That's alright! and haha - I pasted it from Word and posted it then saw that it didn't keep my paragraphs or half my spaces for some reason! I've gone back through it to paragraph it but spacing all the words out again is just long haha sorry!
    haha no worries

    I can post some of my essays next week (they're all hand written in my school locker atm).
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Zooloo)
    haha no worries

    I can post some of my essays next week (they're all hand written in my school locker atm).
    That would be really helpful
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Thanks that's all very helpful...

    Could you also outline the essay structure you would use for a section B answer please? For example, what would you include in the introduction; do you refer to all the sources? Then how would you go about the next few paragraphs... would you make a point and refer to all the sources, or cover just the one source?

    A few examples of section B essays would also be really useful. thanks a lot. 😊
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by DanniKS)
    Thanks that's all very helpful...

    Could you also outline the essay structure you would use for a section B answer please? For example, what would you include in the introduction; do you refer to all the sources? Then how would you go about the next few paragraphs... would you make a point and refer to all the sources, or cover just the one source?

    A few examples of section B essays would also be really useful. thanks a lot. 😊
    I like to let the sources guide how I structure my argument in the exam, as it is very much about how we use the sources and interrogate them, but there are some key things to stick to;

    Introduction: mention all 3 sources and say who says what and who agrees with who and briefly say which ones you agree with - aka tell the examiner your line of argument (very much like every other essay for this whole A level)

    Main body:

    It depends on the content that is presented in the sources but I tend to do one or two paragraphs supporting the argument in the question and using the sources that do (if I disagree with the question it's often a good idea to recognise the argument that could be presented in these two paragraphs, and then suggest why actually you disagree)

    Then j do one or two paragraphs disagreeing with the question, using sources that disagree, comparing them to the ones that agree and weighing up which argument is stronger etc etc

    Then a conclusion really just needs to reiterate what your line of argument and give one or two strong reasons why - could be a good idea to mention a quote from one of the sources and reiterate one small piece of own knowledge previously mentioned.

    I haven't done many of these essays yet - I did my first one for the hitler controversy the other week and I got 33/40 which I think is good for a first go but I would like to get more! When I do some more I will post them up for you

    Hope that helps
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Thanks!! V helpful....
    Offline

    4
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by eddso)
    Here you go If you have any questions about how to structure/write this essay then feel free to ask
    The transformation in the fortunes of the Nazi party was largely due to Hitler’s skill as a politician. How far do you agree with this statement?
    Spoiler:
    Show
    The Nazi transformation of fortunes can be described in electoral terms, Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor and his creation of adictatorship. Hitler clearly was a talented politician as his recognition ofthe need to make political alliances with strong groups and individualsincreased his chances of appointment as Chancellor, whilst his ability toexploit current situations increased electoral support. However, his ability toexploit situations usually seem to only compliment the situation itself; boththe Communist threat and the Great Depression were strongly decisive inshifting voters to Nazism, and his exploitationof these events were only significant in supporting this. Additionally, theGreat Depression managed to exploit the perceived Communist threat, whichgenerated a fear that was greater than was necessary. This suggests that,Hitler’s political skill was important to an extent, but the Great Depressionwas the most significant force in the transformation of Nazi fortunes.

    Hitler’s political talents can be seen in hisacknowledgement of the need to make political alliances with various groups andindividuals within society in order to improve his credibility when presentedto Hindenburg. Hitler managed to rally support and funding from industrialistsand financers such as Paul Reusch and Kurt von Shroder, who helped createpolitical circumstances for the Nazi takeover. It was at Schoder’s house, forexample, that Hitler and von Papen met to enter into negotiations, symbolicallyshowing the significance of his support housing circumstance and opportunity.Similarly, he managed to gain support from the army; as the army was held inhigh esteem within German society, this was a major symbolic gesture which notonly encouraged the nation to regard the Nazi party highly, but also meant thearmy had strong influence over Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor.Finally, he managed to work closely with Von Papen, meeting with him on many separate occasions as he managed to win Von Papen’s support, who was respectedby Hindeburg and could therefore encourage Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor.This is suggestive that Hitler’s skill and talents in the political intrigue inmaking allies with individuals and groups of society had a huge impact inpushing Hindenburg into a corner so that he would accept Hitler’s chancellorship, indicating Hitler’s political skill did cause thetransformation of Nazi fortunes.

    However, admittedly Hitler recognised the importance ofsupport from these groups, but whether this was actually successfully decisiveis another matter. In the petition sent to Hindeburg to appoint Hitler asChancellor, only 20 businessmen signed it, whilst his speech to 650 businessmenin Dusseldorf in January 1932 failed to impress industrialists as his SocialDarwinistic views towards industry became apparent. As a result, funding frombusinessmen was limited to just a few individuals, clearly showing how, despiterecognising the importance of support from businessmen, Hitler’s politicalskill did not extend to the extent that he could conjure up this support.

    Similarly, undoubtedly his alliance with Von Papen wasincredibly decisive in his appointment as Chancellor, but it is questionable asto whether this is down to Hitler’s political skill or fortune. The politicalrivalry between Von Papen and Von Schleicher opened the doors for Hitler to thepolitical intrigue that emerged, as Von Papen was eager to oppose Schleicher’s undesirable personality and policy. For example, Schleicher’s proposed nationalisation of the Steel industry, and his repeal of Papen’s wage cuts,worried businessmen, whose interests were taken seriously by Papen andHindeburg. Slowly a conservative force surrounded Hindenburg, who were keen toreplace Schelciher with a more acceptable Chancellor – Hitler seemed to be thisacceptable Chancellor they so desired, and they decline in their vote to 196seats in the November 1932 election meant that Hindeburg believed he would beable to be controlled. Clearly, Hitler’s support from the conservative elitewas not as a result of his political skill, but a strong, persuasive and mutualdesire to oust an undesirable Chancellor. Hitler was simply fortunate that hisideals matched those of the powerful and influential elite so that he could beseen as the only acceptable replacement.

    Hitler’s political talents can also be seen in how he managed to exploit situations for his personal political advantage. Just a fewhours after the 1933 Reichstag fire, for example, the SA dug through lists ofCommunists prepared months and years before in the eventuality of a ban on Communism, and 4,000 were arrested altogether, which significantly reduced thepolitical threat of Communism to Nazis, reducing their vote to a mere 12.3%.Additionally, its significance is furthered in its allowing Hitler to pass theDecree for the Protection of People and State, which paved the way for Hitler’sdictatorship as the act would later become known as the Enabling Law. It isdebatable whether or not Hitler had planned the Reichstag fire in order to gainhis desired majority, but either way his political skill is evident in how he eitherresponded and exploited a situation to aid his political needs, to created andinitiated a situation to exploit in order to feed his political needs. Similarly,the Great Depression was exploited by Hitler to his advantage as he used it toappeal to all aspects of society. Many Nazi voters between 1930 and 1933 had amutual lack of faith in the Weimar system; for the middle-classes, for example,the Depression was simply the climax to a seemingly never-ending series ofdisasters from 1918. Hitler was able to exploit this ‘politics of anxiety’,using his oratory skilly in making impassioned speeches against Weimar,promising to “rebuild the economy”, which attracted votes from primarily themiddle-class, but also the mittelstand, working class and farmers. The Naziparty is often referred to as the people’s party, which higlights how the Nazifortunes transformed in electoral terms due to Hitler’s ability to unite thenation through a contempt for Weimar. Clearly, Hitler’s political skill inexploiting situations, planned or unplanned, was crucial in increasingelectoral success as it united the nation through a mutual contempt anddistrust for both Communism and Weimar.

    However, the Great Depression seems to be a stronger causeof the change in Nazi fortunes, which Hitler’s political skill in exploitingsituations only supported on the side. The Great Depression affected allaspects of society; in 1932, 5 major banks collapsed and unemployment hadreached 6.1 million and industrial production had fallen to just 40% of the1929. These had catastrophic financial effects as families struggled to providefor their families and society dissented into laziness. With such financialinstability, naturally people were drawn into extremist promises such as“rebuild the economy”. However, not only was financial instability a decisiveeffect of the depression, but the morass of misery and criminality swayedvoters too. In a society where a man’s prestige was dependent on his job,unemployment destroyed self-respect, whilst causing boredom which transformedinto frustration with the economy, society and democracy. Between 1929 and1932, there was a 24% increase in arrests in Berlin, which highlights theextent of the frustration, whilst a noticeable increase in male and femaleprostitution shocked respectable classes. The frustration and social disunitycaused by the Great Depression meant that Nazism, who were seen as the people’sparty, offering a volksgemeinschaft, economic stability and social securitywere certainly attractive. Indeed, during the ‘Golden Years’, with apparenteconomic, social and political stability, Nazism struggled to win 10 seats, yetas soon as the country dissented into economic chaos, their vote dramaticallyincreased to 230 seats in the space of just two years. Clearly the social andeconomic anarchy that the Great Depression plunged Germany into was an immense,and the stronger, force in changing the fortunes of the Nazism, which wasmerely complimented by Hitler’s political skill.

    Finally, the threat, or perceived threat, from Communismsupported the rise of Nazism dramatically. There was a huge growth in theCommunist party, from having 117,000 members in 1929, to 360,000 in 1932. Thisincrease was particularly frightening to the middle-classes, whose socialsituation thrived off of capitalism; a fear which was heightened due to theclass struggles moving from the workplace into the streets, due to theunemployment. Indeed, ‘committees of the unemployed’, which the party founded,held parades, demonstrations, ‘hunger marches’ and other street-based events onalmost a daily basis, which was a much more explicit, visual and frequentreminder to society of the increasing threat posed by Communism. In July 1931,Victor Klemperer asked ‘Is the government going to fall? Will Hitler follow, orCommunism?”. Clearly it seemedinevitable to German society that only Communism or Nazism could follow thelikely collapse of the current government, which, therefore, shows how thechanging fortunes of the Nazi party was due to Hitler being the only crediblealternative and defender of the immense fear generated by the communist threat.

    However, the rise in Communism can largely be put down tothe Great Depression and the unemployment it created. As Evans notes, however, aCommunist revolution was incredibly unlikely as the party’s members wereprimarily unemployed and in poverty, meaning it was short of resources andphysically weak. Here, it seems that, despite it seeming that the Communistthreat encouraged Nazi support, it was actually the political effects of theGreat Depression in creating a façade of Communist strength, when realisticallythey were weakened, which generated the aforementioned fear, which was greaterthan necessary. This, therefore, decisively turned voters to the onlyalternative – Nazism. One again, thetransformation of the fortunes of the Nazi party has been due to the political effectsof the Great Depression in exploiting and strengthening an existing politicaland social fear to the extent that German people could only see one extremealternative.

    To conclude, Hitler’s political talents are certainlyevident in a number of scenarios which contributed to the changing fortunes ofthe Nazi party. However, the extent of the strength of this talent in relationto the event and context in which this talent was being performed isquestionable. His success in exploiting the Communist threat and the GreatDepression were certainly impressive, but did not match the strength of boththese factors, but loosely complimented them, as they were both individuallydecisive in shaping the mind set of voters anyway. Furthermore, the strength ofthe Communist threat was clearly only perceived, a perception whichmaterialised as a result of the Great Depression. It seems clear that a numberof factors helped the changing fortunes of the Nazi party, but they were allderived from the social, economic and political effects of the GreatDepression, showing how this was the strongest force in increasing support forNazism.
    61BgV�8ݬ>G
    Brilliant essay on the Nazis. I was wondering do you have any other essays that have reached the standard of this essay perhaps? Additionally you mention you didnt gain full marks due to talking about the fire and the enabling act. What other factors or points would you need to mention in order to gain those extra few marks. Finally in your essay you mention about "Evans" in the context of a communist revolution being unlikely, what was the historians full name?
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by edward090)
    Brilliant essay on the Nazis. I was wondering do you have any other essays that have reached the standard of this essay perhaps? Additionally you mention you didnt gain full marks due to talking about the fire and the enabling act. What other factors or points would you need to mention in order to gain those extra few marks. Finally in your essay you mention about "Evans" in the context of a communist revolution being unlikely, what was the historians full name?
    Thanks! I'll upload some more essays soon - j have one on the threat to Weimar from political extremists

    Re content - I'm not sure it's so much that I need to include anything else, it's more that the Reichstag fire and Enablish Act wasn't what they were asking therefore I lost marks for not focusing on the question.

    The historians name is Richard Evans - brilliant historian and his books are a great compliment to this course. I haven't read his book from cover to cover but I use it as a a sort of textbook, dipping in and out of it when I need to. If you want to do wider reading to access the higher levels, I recommend Evans!
    Offline

    4
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by eddso)
    Thanks! I'll upload some more essays soon - j have one on the threat to Weimar from political extremists

    Re content - I'm not sure it's so much that I need to include anything else, it's more that the Reichstag fire and Enablish Act wasn't what they were asking therefore I lost marks for not focusing on the question.

    The historians name is Richard Evans - brilliant historian and his books are a great compliment to this course. I haven't read his book from cover to cover but I use it as a a sort of textbook, dipping in and out of it when I need to. If you want to do wider reading to access the higher levels, I recommend Evans!
    Would you perhaps send me that essay either by private message or this thread?

    I have been doing a lot of questions about the second reich and a common theme is whether or not it was democratic or autocratic. In regards to that what factors and pieces of evidence would you choose to do? Also what historians would you use for this type of question.

    I will definitely check him out he sounds brilliant!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    A question on whether political extremists 1919-24 posed a serious threat to the Weimar Republic- how would you structure it?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Anyone have any predictions for what will be on and what might not be on?
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    3
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Lewiss1997)
    Anyone have any predictions for what will be on and what might not be on?
    Well last year was on Hitler's Rise to Power (Weimar politicians as stated factor) and Second Reich economy so I'm hoping it won't be on either of those two. The Golden Years would possibly come up as they've never specifically asked about that period before, and in WW2 they've asked about all 3 topics but they haven't asked about the Final Solution since 2010 (first paper) or opposition since 2011 - the economy came up in 2013. For the ww1 controversy they may be sneaky and ask about whether Germany waged an aggressive war for domestic purposes?
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    Hi,

    My teacher hasn't taught the second controversy very well, so I don't understand it compared to controversy 1.

    Could I get away with just revising controversy one?
 
 
 
The home of Results and Clearing

2,715

people online now

1,567,000

students helped last year

University open days

  1. Sheffield Hallam University
    City Campus Undergraduate
    Tue, 21 Aug '18
  2. Bournemouth University
    Clearing Open Day Undergraduate
    Wed, 22 Aug '18
  3. University of Buckingham
    Postgraduate Open Evening Postgraduate
    Thu, 23 Aug '18
Poll
A-level students - how do you feel about your results?

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Write a reply...
Reply
Hide
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.