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    (Original post by Cathy_Rah)
    How'd you know that :\?????
    it will be shchizo! hasnt come up 4-6 times in a row! since this is the last spec i have feeling they'll ask something nasty like compare and contrast bio/psycho for schizo what do u guys think will come up for debates my teacher syas psychology as a science but that came up twice in a row now! i want nature nurture! reductinism is bullocks dnt understand that, n free will determinism i dunno. i need to get down to unit 5 asap
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    for question 11 parental investment ppl dnt ignore it n i rekon factors leading to intelligence foragin etc is likely to come up aswell. ive left revision very late ive got something like another 8 subtopics to revise(well learn actyually!) but i will do it theres 3 days bye
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    oh god, iv just realised i havnt covered the nature of relationships at all for question 2, and it came up on the Jan07 paper! is there a chance it could come up on this paper?
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    (Original post by jon###)
    oh god, iv just realised i havnt covered the nature of relationships at all for question 2, and it came up on the Jan07 paper! is there a chance it could come up on this paper?
    Yes.

    What do you mean by Nature of Relationship? Like Formation/Dissolution
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    no, iv done that. i mean relationships in different cultures, and understudied relationships?
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    Dont bother with understudied if u hvnt got time, it came up in jan so unlikely it will again
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    (Original post by jon###)
    no, iv done that. i mean relationships in different cultures, and understudied relationships?
    Alright try and do Relationships in different cultures... I have done understudied relationships just yet, I will try and do it tomorow for 2 hours and then I will review all of my work and try to do as much essay questions as possible.
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    really? i just really had a panic attack over it, just looking at past papers and then i saw it and my heart sank! i can remeber my teacher saying that i shudnt bother covering it, but didnt explain why, and then i just saw it on the Jan 07 paper and was like, "if they havnt set it since jan 07, then it could come up!". so it definately was on the Jan 08 paper aswell?
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    Understudied relationship was on January 08... But Cultures is so easy to revise... just learn Mogadam(is that spelt correctly?) and learn Individualistic(western) and Collectivist (non western cultures)... and you can apply theories of formation as A02 like for example Sociobiological you can use for both Western and Non Western ..

    Here's the essay I did...

    Spoiler:
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    Discuss the nature of relationships in different cultures. Use research studies in your answer (24 marks)

    Relationships are argued to differ between western and non-western cultures. In the case of marriage it is suggested that in non western cultures where they are suggested to be in collectivist societies relationships are more permanent and involuntary, where research found in Japan 25% of marriages are arranged, and in many societies people marry their extended families. Also research has found that this is accepted in these cultures as normal and anticipated with pleasure. Whereas in western cultures which are more individualistic societies, they are more voluntary and not permanent and yet research into relationships is often ethnocentric, with a view that all relationships should be as the west define relationships as the best.

    However, there are large variations within cultures and although western societies believe they are voluntary, it may be argued that the social and legal baggage of relationships actually result in the marriages to be involuntary. Also, the fact that as research has found we actually form relationships on particular variables such as age, education, location, social status, religion and this is suggested to be in effect ‘arranged’. All this suggests that relationships between cultures may not actually be so different.

    In addition, due to the fact you would expect that in western cultures people marry for ‘love’ it has actually been found that in a survey 50% of Americans marry for other reasons than love e.g. security, money, family pressure, children and not love.

    Research has also found that couples who marry for love (as in western cultures) report diminished feelings after 5 years, yet those who undertake arranged marriages report more love over time, and that this is left to be defined and discovered.

    Attitudes to love differ between different cultures, and in western cultures romantic love is seen as essential to happiness whereas in non western cultures it would be companionate love that is seem at the most important on Sternberg’s triangle. Research compared Indian arranged marriages and north American ‘love’ marriages and found very little differences in satisfaction. However, other research argue that individualistic societies being self-centred make sustaining a stable and happy relationship difficult, in addition, the Chinese identify the romantic love element of a relationship causes pain and sorrow and unfulfilled affection. Suggesting that not only may the western approach not the best way to approach relationships but also it may not be a good way.

    In terms of friendships, it appears there may be differences, that in western cultures there tends to be a larger number of friends but are less close to each other, and it may be difficult to maintain those friendship due to the large number. This may not be satisfying as social support is known to help with stress, but this larger numbers of friends that are not close may be more detrimental than good. Whereas in non western cultures there may be fewer friends but close ones, and research compared these and found in japan there were closer friendships with greater trust and self disclosure, than in germany.

    The breakdown in marriages differ between cultures also, as research found in china divorce is viewed as shameful and only 4% whereas in the US it is more acceptable 40-50% of new marriages breakdown.

    Current explanations of the formation, maintenance and dissolution of relationships are argued to be ethnocentric and there are many criticisms to suggest there are cultural differences and cannot be applied universally. For example, the need reinforcement satisfaction theory makes the assumption that relationships are formed as a result of satisfying a need and that humans are ultimately selfish, similarly the social exchange theory and equity theory in the maintenance of relationships also make the assumption that in order for relationships to continue there is an element of minimising costs and maximising benefits. These are considered to be seen from a western or individualistic culture which is ignorant of other cultures where cost-benefit analysis would not even be considered and have a much less selfish approach, more community based.

    However, it is not this simplistic to compare cultures as even in arranged marriages there is an element of individual choice to a greater or lesser extent.

    There is also the problem of classifying individualistic and collectivist societies, as Takano and Osaka found a fundamental attribution error, that what we consider to be individualistic is more collectivists and vice versa.


    In addition, when cross cultural research is conducted it is ethnocentric and invalid measuring tools. Ignoring the complexities and the role of language when conducting the research. There are always subcultures within any society, which needs to be taken into consideration and within that there are individual differences. With the changes in the global society and over time there are greater variations in types of relationships that research also needs to take into account in different cultures, such as blended families, cross sex non romantic friendships, romantic or friendly workplace relationships, co-operative neighbour relationships, sibling relationships, chid friendships.


    Essay Plan

    Spoiler:
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    Para 1
    Current explanations of the formation, maintenance and dissolution of relationships are argued to be ethnocentric and there are many criticisms to suggest there are cultural differences and cannot be applied universally. For example, the need reinforcement satisfaction theory makes the assumption that relationships are formed as a result of satisfying a need and that humans are ultimately selfish, similarly the social exchange theory and equity theory in the maintenance of relationships also make the assumption that in order for relationships to continue there is an element of minimising costs and maximising benefits. These are considered to be seen from a western or individualistic culture which is ignorant of other cultures where cost-benefit analysis would not even be considered and have a much less selfish approach, more community based.
    However, one theory of the formation of relationships is the sociobiological theory which would suggest that the we form relationships in order to reproduce and ensure the survival of our genes, however it explains family relationships better than friendships, Buss’ research supports this to be universal in different cultures, however – there are problems with the research………

    Para 2
    Marriage – discuss the differences
    and
    What does research suggest is more likely to last? Why? but what is wrong with this?
    Are marriages arranged in effect in western societies? Explain?
    Discuss the concept of voluntary (western) and involuntary (non western) relationships – do relationships stay voluntary? What about social baggage? And in non western cultures are they really involuntary? Is there an element of choice still?

    Para 3
    Attitude to romantic love research
    …. And talk about Sternberg’s Love triangle – where commitment and intimacy most important components in non-western cultures, and where passion and intimacy are more important to western cultures. But which is the best? What does the research suggest? What happens to the ‘being in love’ feeling of western relationships over time?
    Also, even though western societies place more emphasis on romantic love and most say this is the basis to marry is it really why people in the US have chosen to marry?


    Para4
    Friendship differences? Discuss them? Is it difficult to maintain relationships with large numbers of friends in western societies? If you have many friends and which are ultimately less intimate then is the best? Or is it to have fewer very close friendships which is more characteristic of non western cultures to have? (think about module 2 – stress and social support)

    Para5
    Most important component in formation of relationships is argued to be physical attractiveness in western sexual relationships whereas in non-western relationships it is argued to be demographic similarity – explain the differences.

    Para6
    Problems with the cross cultural research
    Problems with comparisons – too simplistic – not clear cut
    Samples used often biased? Not generalisable

    Para 7
    Problems of sub –cultures in research?
    Problems of biased samples in research into other cultures?
    Problems of attitudes to different types of relationships in different cultures… need to take into account homosexual, blended family relationships, e-relationships. all of these are problems in current research, but the research into these need also to be considered in different cultures.

    Conclusion
    Intercultural differences in different types of relationships are apparent, and current explanations and most research into relationships are focused upon eurocentric assumptions. Yet even attempting cross cultural research is problematic and further research is necessary taking an indigenous approach.
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    wow, thanks for postin the essays! my 15 minutes of panic for psychology are over, at least until i resume revision 2moro!
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    Glad I could help. If you need any more essay plan for Understudied relationships. Just ask
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    (Original post by Matchbox123)
    I am also confsued!! Surely they just asked for understudied? not psyc explanations tooo? ! ahh
    I was told it was understudied. I doubt part of section 2 AND section 3 will be put into one question. Plus, understudied is a VERY broad area. I can't see how that's possible.
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    Exam tomorrow.. AHHHHHHHH.. lets get learning
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    'Outline research into one or more forms of biological rhythms' (12 marks)
    Could i include studies on endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers??

    EDIT: You know how this is the end of the spec does that mean that if i fail i cant resit :|
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    Here comes the panic and 12 hours of cramming...
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    hey... am doing 2,3 and 15
    i think that the q's what are most likely to come up are

    2) relationship - love, breakdown then formation
    3) enviromental stressor?
    15) sex difference in parental inverstment OR sexual seletion?...

    ive read thro the threads and ppls are sayin that intelligence might come up?but that came up in june 07? didnt it?...
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    (Original post by clallen2)
    'Outline research into one or more forms of biological rhythms' (12 marks)
    Could i include studies on endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers??

    EDIT: You know how this is the end of the spec does that mean that if i fail i cant resit :|
    Yeah you could I guess, but I think it's more about specific types of rhythms, ie. infradian/circadian/ultradian, so I'd mention stuff on the sleep/wake cycle, menstruation, sleep stages. (And the studies that go with them.. which, of course, I can't remember :mad:. )
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    Does anyone have any essays on relationships, such as dissolution/maintenance and love?
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    (Original post by hcblingbling)
    endogenous pacemakers are to do with biological clocks in the body, whereas exogenous zeitgebers are to do with synchronising the clocks with external cues
    there's loads of case studies aswell, like, Siffre, WW2 bunkers, US nuclear submariners etc and then evaluate and see which is predominant, the pacemakers or zeitgebers
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    2) Maintenance/breakdown or Psychological explanations of love
    3) Environmental stressors
    5) Disruption of bodily rhythms

    I'm hoping those come up!
    Left my revision late so I won't be revising everything. May luck be on my side.
 
 
 
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